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Sourcecode: postgresql-8.4 version File versions

pgbench.c

/*
 * pgbench.c
 *
 * A simple benchmark program for PostgreSQL
 * Originally written by Tatsuo Ishii and enhanced by many contributors.
 *
 * $PostgreSQL$
 * Copyright (c) 2000-2009, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
 * ALL RIGHTS RESERVED;
 *
 * Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
 * documentation for any purpose, without fee, and without a written agreement
 * is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this
 * paragraph and the following two paragraphs appear in all copies.
 *
 * IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR DISTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE TO ANY PARTY FOR
 * DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING
 * LOST PROFITS, ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE AND ITS
 * DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF THE AUTHOR OR DISTRIBUTORS HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE
 * POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 *
 * THE AUTHOR AND DISTRIBUTORS SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTIES,
 * INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
 * AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE SOFTWARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER IS
 * ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND THE AUTHOR AND DISTRIBUTORS HAS NO OBLIGATIONS TO
 * PROVIDE MAINTENANCE, SUPPORT, UPDATES, ENHANCEMENTS, OR MODIFICATIONS.
 *
 */
#include "postgres_fe.h"

#include "libpq-fe.h"
#include "pqsignal.h"

#include <ctype.h>

#ifdef WIN32
#undef FD_SETSIZE
#define FD_SETSIZE 1024
#include <win32.h>
#else
#include <signal.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#endif   /* ! WIN32 */

#ifdef HAVE_GETOPT_H
#include <getopt.h>
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_SYS_SELECT_H
#include <sys/select.h>
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_SYS_RESOURCE_H
#include <sys/resource.h>           /* for getrlimit */
#endif

extern char *optarg;
extern int  optind;


/********************************************************************
 * some configurable parameters */

/* max number of clients allowed */
#ifdef FD_SETSIZE
#define MAXCLIENTS      (FD_SETSIZE - 10)
#else
#define MAXCLIENTS      1024
#endif

#define DEFAULT_NXACTS  10          /* default nxacts */

int               nclients = 1;           /* default number of simulated clients */
int               nxacts = 0;             /* number of transactions per client */
int               duration = 0;           /* duration in seconds */

/*
 * scaling factor. for example, scale = 10 will make 1000000 tuples of
 * accounts table.
 */
int               scale = 1;

/*
 * fillfactor. for example, fillfactor = 90 will use only 90 percent
 * space during inserts and leave 10 percent free.
 */
int               fillfactor = 100;

/*
 * end of configurable parameters
 *********************************************************************/

#define nbranches 1
#define ntellers  10
#define naccounts 100000

FILE     *LOGFILE = NULL;

bool        use_log;                /* log transaction latencies to a file */

int               remains;                /* number of remaining clients */

int               is_connect;             /* establish connection  for each transaction */

char     *pghost = "";
char     *pgport = "";
char     *pgoptions = NULL;
char     *pgtty = NULL;
char     *login = NULL;
char     *dbName;

volatile bool timer_exceeded = false;           /* flag from signal handler */

/* variable definitions */
typedef struct
{
      char     *name;               /* variable name */
      char     *value;              /* its value */
}     Variable;

#define MAX_FILES       128         /* max number of SQL script files allowed */

/*
 * structures used in custom query mode
 */

typedef struct
{
      PGconn         *con;                /* connection handle to DB */
      int               id;                     /* client No. */
      int               state;                  /* state No. */
      int               cnt;              /* xacts count */
      int               ecnt;             /* error count */
      int               listen;                 /* 0 indicates that an async query has been
                                                 * sent */
      int               sleeping;         /* 1 indicates that the client is napping */
      struct timeval until;         /* napping until */
      Variable   *variables;        /* array of variable definitions */
      int               nvariables;
      struct timeval txn_begin;     /* used for measuring latencies */
      int               use_file;         /* index in sql_files for this client */
      bool        prepared[MAX_FILES];
}     CState;

/*
 * queries read from files
 */
#define SQL_COMMAND           1
#define META_COMMAND    2
#define MAX_ARGS        10

typedef enum QueryMode
{
      QUERY_SIMPLE,     /* simple query */
      QUERY_EXTENDED,   /* extended query */
      QUERY_PREPARED,   /* extended query with prepared statements */
      NUM_QUERYMODE
} QueryMode;

static QueryMode  querymode = QUERY_SIMPLE;
static const char *QUERYMODE[] = { "simple", "extended", "prepared" };

typedef struct
{
      int               type;             /* command type (SQL_COMMAND or META_COMMAND) */
      int               argc;             /* number of commands */
      char     *argv[MAX_ARGS]; /* command list */
}     Command;

Command   **sql_files[MAX_FILES];         /* SQL script files */
int               num_files;              /* number of script files */

/* default scenario */
static char *tpc_b = {
      "\\set nbranches :scale\n"
      "\\set ntellers 10 * :scale\n"
      "\\set naccounts 100000 * :scale\n"
      "\\setrandom aid 1 :naccounts\n"
      "\\setrandom bid 1 :nbranches\n"
      "\\setrandom tid 1 :ntellers\n"
      "\\setrandom delta -5000 5000\n"
      "BEGIN;\n"
      "UPDATE accounts SET abalance = abalance + :delta WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
      "SELECT abalance FROM accounts WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
      "UPDATE tellers SET tbalance = tbalance + :delta WHERE tid = :tid;\n"
      "UPDATE branches SET bbalance = bbalance + :delta WHERE bid = :bid;\n"
      "INSERT INTO history (tid, bid, aid, delta, mtime) VALUES (:tid, :bid, :aid, :delta, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);\n"
      "END;\n"
};

/* -N case */
static char *simple_update = {
      "\\set nbranches :scale\n"
      "\\set ntellers 10 * :scale\n"
      "\\set naccounts 100000 * :scale\n"
      "\\setrandom aid 1 :naccounts\n"
      "\\setrandom bid 1 :nbranches\n"
      "\\setrandom tid 1 :ntellers\n"
      "\\setrandom delta -5000 5000\n"
      "BEGIN;\n"
      "UPDATE accounts SET abalance = abalance + :delta WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
      "SELECT abalance FROM accounts WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
      "INSERT INTO history (tid, bid, aid, delta, mtime) VALUES (:tid, :bid, :aid, :delta, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP);\n"
      "END;\n"
};

/* -S case */
static char *select_only = {
      "\\set naccounts 100000 * :scale\n"
      "\\setrandom aid 1 :naccounts\n"
      "SELECT abalance FROM accounts WHERE aid = :aid;\n"
};

/* Connection overhead time */
static struct timeval conn_total_time = {0, 0};

/* Function prototypes */
static void setalarm(int seconds);


/* Calculate total time */
static void
addTime(struct timeval *t1, struct timeval *t2, struct timeval *result)
{
      int sec = t1->tv_sec + t2->tv_sec;
      int usec = t1->tv_usec + t2->tv_usec;
      if (usec >= 1000000)
      {
            usec -= 1000000;
            sec++;
      }
      result->tv_sec = sec;
      result->tv_usec = usec;
}

/* Calculate time difference */
static void
diffTime(struct timeval *t1, struct timeval *t2, struct timeval *result)
{
      int sec = t1->tv_sec - t2->tv_sec;
      int usec = t1->tv_usec - t2->tv_usec;
      if (usec < 0)
      {
            usec += 1000000;
            sec--;
      }
      result->tv_sec = sec;
      result->tv_usec = usec;
}

static void
usage(const char *progname)
{
      printf("%s is a benchmarking tool for PostgreSQL.\n\n"
               "Usage:\n"
               "  %s [OPTIONS]... [DBNAME]\n"
               "\nInitialization options:\n"
               "  -i           invokes initialization mode\n"
               "  -F NUM       fill factor\n"
               "  -s NUM       scaling factor\n"
               "\nBenchmarking options:\n"
               "  -c NUM       number of concurrent database clients (default: 1)\n"
               "  -C           establish new connection for each transaction\n"
               "  -D VARNAME=VALUE\n"
               "               define variable for use by custom script\n"
               "  -f FILENAME  read transaction script from FILENAME\n"
               "  -l           write transaction times to log file\n"
               "  -M {simple|extended|prepared}\n"
               "               protocol for submitting queries to server (default: simple)\n"
               "  -n           do not run VACUUM before tests\n"
               "  -N           do not update tables \"tellers\" and \"branches\"\n"
               "  -s NUM       report scale factor in output\n"
               "  -S           perform SELECT-only transactions\n"
               "  -t NUM       number of transactions each client runs (default: 10)\n"
               "  -T NUM       duration of benchmark test in seconds\n"
               "  -v           vacuum all four standard tables before tests\n"
               "\nCommon options:\n"
               "  -d           print debugging output\n"
               "  -h HOSTNAME  database server host or socket directory\n"
               "  -p PORT      database server port number\n"
               "  -U USERNAME  connect as specified database user\n"
               "  --help       show this help, then exit\n"
               "  --version    output version information, then exit\n"
               "\n"
               "Report bugs to <pgsql-bugs@postgresql.org>.\n",
               progname, progname);
}

/* random number generator: uniform distribution from min to max inclusive */
static int
getrand(int min, int max)
{
      /*
       * Odd coding is so that min and max have approximately the same chance of
       * being selected as do numbers between them.
       */
      return min + (int) (((max - min + 1) * (double) random()) / (MAX_RANDOM_VALUE + 1.0));
}

/* call PQexec() and exit() on failure */
static void
executeStatement(PGconn *con, const char *sql)
{
      PGresult   *res;

      res = PQexec(con, sql);
      if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(con));
            exit(1);
      }
      PQclear(res);
}

/* set up a connection to the backend */
static PGconn *
doConnect(void)
{
      PGconn         *conn;
      static char *password = NULL;
      bool        new_pass;

      /*
       * Start the connection.  Loop until we have a password if requested by
       * backend.
       */
      do
      {
            new_pass = false;

            conn = PQsetdbLogin(pghost, pgport, pgoptions, pgtty, dbName,
                                          login, password);
            if (!conn)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database \"%s\" failed\n",
                              dbName);
                  return NULL;
            }

            if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD &&
                  PQconnectionNeedsPassword(conn) &&
                  password == NULL)
            {
                  PQfinish(conn);
                  password = simple_prompt("Password: ", 100, false);
                  new_pass = true;
            }
      } while (new_pass);

      /* check to see that the backend connection was successfully made */
      if (PQstatus(conn) == CONNECTION_BAD)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database \"%s\" failed:\n%s",
                        dbName, PQerrorMessage(conn));
            PQfinish(conn);
            return NULL;
      }

      executeStatement(conn, "SET search_path = public");

      return conn;
}

/* throw away response from backend */
static void
discard_response(CState * state)
{
      PGresult   *res;

      do
      {
            res = PQgetResult(state->con);
            if (res)
                  PQclear(res);
      } while (res);
}

/* check to see if the SQL result was good */
static int
check(CState * state, PGresult *res, int n)
{
      CState         *st = &state[n];

      switch (PQresultStatus(res))
      {
            case PGRES_COMMAND_OK:
            case PGRES_TUPLES_OK:
                  /* OK */
                  break;
            default:
                  fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in state %d: %s",
                              n, st->state, PQerrorMessage(st->con));
                  remains--;              /* I've aborted */
                  PQfinish(st->con);
                  st->con = NULL;
                  return (-1);
      }
      return (0);                         /* OK */
}

static int
compareVariables(const void *v1, const void *v2)
{
      return strcmp(((const Variable *) v1)->name,
                          ((const Variable *) v2)->name);
}

static char *
getVariable(CState * st, char *name)
{
      Variable    key,
                     *var;

      /* On some versions of Solaris, bsearch of zero items dumps core */
      if (st->nvariables <= 0)
            return NULL;

      key.name = name;
      var = (Variable *) bsearch((void *) &key,
                                             (void *) st->variables,
                                             st->nvariables,
                                             sizeof(Variable),
                                             compareVariables);
      if (var != NULL)
            return var->value;
      else
            return NULL;
}

static int
putVariable(CState * st, char *name, char *value)
{
      Variable    key,
                     *var;

      key.name = name;
      /* On some versions of Solaris, bsearch of zero items dumps core */
      if (st->nvariables > 0)
            var = (Variable *) bsearch((void *) &key,
                                                   (void *) st->variables,
                                                   st->nvariables,
                                                   sizeof(Variable),
                                                   compareVariables);
      else
            var = NULL;

      if (var == NULL)
      {
            Variable   *newvars;

            if (st->variables)
                  newvars = (Variable *) realloc(st->variables,
                                                      (st->nvariables + 1) * sizeof(Variable));
            else
                  newvars = (Variable *) malloc(sizeof(Variable));

            if (newvars == NULL)
                  return false;

            st->variables = newvars;

            var = &newvars[st->nvariables];

            var->name = NULL;
            var->value = NULL;

            if ((var->name = strdup(name)) == NULL
                  || (var->value = strdup(value)) == NULL)
            {
                  free(var->name);
                  free(var->value);
                  return false;
            }

            st->nvariables++;

            qsort((void *) st->variables, st->nvariables, sizeof(Variable),
                    compareVariables);
      }
      else
      {
            char     *val;

            if ((val = strdup(value)) == NULL)
                  return false;

            free(var->value);
            var->value = val;
      }

      return true;
}

static char *
parseVariable(const char *sql, int *eaten)
{
      int         i = 0;
      char   *name;

      do
      {
            i++;
      } while (isalnum((unsigned char) sql[i]) || sql[i] == '_');
      if (i == 1)
            return NULL;

      name = malloc(i);
      if (name == NULL)
            return NULL;
      memcpy(name, &sql[1], i - 1);
      name[i - 1] = '\0';

      *eaten = i;
      return name;
}

static char *
replaceVariable(char **sql, char *param, int len, char *value)
{
      int   valueln = strlen(value);

      if (valueln > len)
      {
            char   *tmp;
            size_t      offset = param - *sql;

            tmp = realloc(*sql, strlen(*sql) - len + valueln + 1);
            if (tmp == NULL)
            {
                  free(*sql);
                  return NULL;
            }
            *sql = tmp;
            param = *sql + offset;
      }

      if (valueln != len)
            memmove(param + valueln, param + len, strlen(param + len) + 1);
      strncpy(param, value, valueln);

      return param + valueln;
}

static char *
assignVariables(CState * st, char *sql)
{
      char     *p,
                     *name,
                     *val;

      p = sql;
      while ((p = strchr(p, ':')) != NULL)
      {
            int         eaten;

            name = parseVariable(p, &eaten);
            if (name == NULL)
            {
                  while (*p == ':') { p++; }
                  continue;
            }

            val = getVariable(st, name);
            free(name);
            if (val == NULL)
            {
                  p++;
                  continue;
            }

            if ((p = replaceVariable(&sql, p, eaten, val)) == NULL)
                  return NULL;
      }

      return sql;
}

static void
getQueryParams(CState *st, const Command *command, const char **params)
{
      int         i;

      for (i = 0; i < command->argc - 1; i++)
            params[i] = getVariable(st, command->argv[i+1]);
}

#define MAX_PREPARE_NAME            32
static void
preparedStatementName(char *buffer, int file, int state)
{
      sprintf(buffer, "P%d_%d", file, state);
}

static void
doCustom(CState * state, int n, int debug)
{
      PGresult   *res;
      CState         *st = &state[n];
      Command   **commands;

top:
      commands = sql_files[st->use_file];

      if (st->sleeping)
      {                                         /* are we sleeping? */
            int               usec;
            struct timeval now;

            gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
            usec = (st->until.tv_sec - now.tv_sec) * 1000000 +
                  st->until.tv_usec - now.tv_usec;
            if (usec <= 0)
                  st->sleeping = 0; /* Done sleeping, go ahead with next command */
            else
                  return;                       /* Still sleeping, nothing to do here */
      }

      if (st->listen)
      {                                         /* are we receiver? */
            if (commands[st->state]->type == SQL_COMMAND)
            {
                  if (debug)
                        fprintf(stderr, "client %d receiving\n", n);
                  if (!PQconsumeInput(st->con))
                  {                             /* there's something wrong */
                        fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in state %d. Probably the backend died while processing.\n", n, st->state);
                        remains--;        /* I've aborted */
                        PQfinish(st->con);
                        st->con = NULL;
                        return;
                  }
                  if (PQisBusy(st->con))
                        return;                 /* don't have the whole result yet */
            }

            /*
             * transaction finished: record the time it took in the log
             */
            if (use_log && commands[st->state + 1] == NULL)
            {
                  double            diff;
                  struct timeval now;

                  gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
                  diff = (int) (now.tv_sec - st->txn_begin.tv_sec) * 1000000.0 +
                        (int) (now.tv_usec - st->txn_begin.tv_usec);

                  fprintf(LOGFILE, "%d %d %.0f %d %ld %ld\n",
                              st->id, st->cnt, diff, st->use_file,
                              (long) now.tv_sec, (long) now.tv_usec);
            }

            if (commands[st->state]->type == SQL_COMMAND)
            {
                  res = PQgetResult(st->con);
                  if (check(state, res, n))
                  {
                        PQclear(res);
                        return;
                  }
                  PQclear(res);
                  discard_response(st);
            }

            if (commands[st->state + 1] == NULL)
            {
                  if (is_connect)
                  {
                        PQfinish(st->con);
                        st->con = NULL;
                  }

                  ++st->cnt;
                  if ((st->cnt >= nxacts && duration <= 0) || timer_exceeded)
                  {
                        remains--;        /* I've done */
                        if (st->con != NULL)
                        {
                              PQfinish(st->con);
                              st->con = NULL;
                        }
                        return;
                  }
            }

            /* increment state counter */
            st->state++;
            if (commands[st->state] == NULL)
            {
                  st->state = 0;
                  st->use_file = getrand(0, num_files - 1);
                  commands = sql_files[st->use_file];
            }
      }

      if (st->con == NULL)
      {
            struct timeval t1, t2, t3;

            gettimeofday(&t1, NULL);
            if ((st->con = doConnect()) == NULL)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in establishing connection.\n",
                              n);
                  remains--;              /* I've aborted */
                  PQfinish(st->con);
                  st->con = NULL;
                  return;
            }
            gettimeofday(&t2, NULL);
            diffTime(&t2, &t1, &t3);
            addTime(&conn_total_time, &t3, &conn_total_time);
      }

      if (use_log && st->state == 0)
            gettimeofday(&(st->txn_begin), NULL);

      if (commands[st->state]->type == SQL_COMMAND)
      {
            const Command  *command = commands[st->state];
            int                     r;

            if (querymode == QUERY_SIMPLE)
            {
                  char     *sql;

                  if ((sql = strdup(command->argv[0])) == NULL
                        || (sql = assignVariables(st, sql)) == NULL)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "out of memory\n");
                        st->ecnt++;
                        return;
                  }

                  if (debug)
                        fprintf(stderr, "client %d sending %s\n", n, sql);
                  r = PQsendQuery(st->con, sql);
                  free(sql);
            }
            else if (querymode == QUERY_EXTENDED)
            {
                  const char         *sql = command->argv[0];
                  const char         *params[MAX_ARGS];

                  getQueryParams(st, command, params);

                  if (debug)
                        fprintf(stderr, "client %d sending %s\n", n, sql);
                  r = PQsendQueryParams(st->con, sql, command->argc - 1,
                        NULL, params, NULL, NULL, 0);
            }
            else if (querymode == QUERY_PREPARED)
            {
                  char        name[MAX_PREPARE_NAME];
                  const char *params[MAX_ARGS];

                  if (!st->prepared[st->use_file])
                  {
                        int         j;

                        for (j = 0; commands[j] != NULL; j++)
                        {
                              PGresult   *res;
                              char        name[MAX_PREPARE_NAME];

                              if (commands[j]->type != SQL_COMMAND)
                                    continue;
                              preparedStatementName(name, st->use_file, j);
                              res = PQprepare(st->con, name,
                                    commands[j]->argv[0], commands[j]->argc - 1, NULL);
                              if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COMMAND_OK)
                                    fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(st->con));
                              PQclear(res);
                        }
                        st->prepared[st->use_file] = true;
                  }

                  getQueryParams(st, command, params);
                  preparedStatementName(name, st->use_file, st->state);

                  if (debug)
                        fprintf(stderr, "client %d sending %s\n", n, name);
                  r = PQsendQueryPrepared(st->con, name, command->argc - 1,
                        params, NULL, NULL, 0);
            }
            else /* unknown sql mode */
                  r = 0;

            if (r == 0)
            {
                  if (debug)
                        fprintf(stderr, "client %d cannot send %s\n", n, command->argv[0]);
                  st->ecnt++;
            }
            else
                  st->listen = 1;         /* flags that should be listened */
      }
      else if (commands[st->state]->type == META_COMMAND)
      {
            int               argc = commands[st->state]->argc,
                              i;
            char    **argv = commands[st->state]->argv;

            if (debug)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "client %d executing \\%s", n, argv[0]);
                  for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
                        fprintf(stderr, " %s", argv[i]);
                  fprintf(stderr, "\n");
            }

            if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[0], "setrandom") == 0)
            {
                  char     *var;
                  int               min,
                                    max;
                  char        res[64];

                  if (*argv[2] == ':')
                  {
                        if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[2] + 1)) == NULL)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[2]);
                              st->ecnt++;
                              return;
                        }
                        min = atoi(var);
                  }
                  else
                        min = atoi(argv[2]);

#ifdef NOT_USED
                  if (min < 0)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: invalid minimum number %d\n", argv[0], min);
                        st->ecnt++;
                        return;
                  }
#endif

                  if (*argv[3] == ':')
                  {
                        if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[3] + 1)) == NULL)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[3]);
                              st->ecnt++;
                              return;
                        }
                        max = atoi(var);
                  }
                  else
                        max = atoi(argv[3]);

                  if (max < min || max > MAX_RANDOM_VALUE)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: invalid maximum number %d\n", argv[0], max);
                        st->ecnt++;
                        return;
                  }

#ifdef DEBUG
                  printf("min: %d max: %d random: %d\n", min, max, getrand(min, max));
#endif
                  snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", getrand(min, max));

                  if (putVariable(st, argv[1], res) == false)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: out of memory\n", argv[0]);
                        st->ecnt++;
                        return;
                  }

                  st->listen = 1;
            }
            else if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[0], "set") == 0)
            {
                  char     *var;
                  int               ope1,
                                    ope2;
                  char        res[64];

                  if (*argv[2] == ':')
                  {
                        if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[2] + 1)) == NULL)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[2]);
                              st->ecnt++;
                              return;
                        }
                        ope1 = atoi(var);
                  }
                  else
                        ope1 = atoi(argv[2]);

                  if (argc < 5)
                        snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1);
                  else
                  {
                        if (*argv[4] == ':')
                        {
                              if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[4] + 1)) == NULL)
                              {
                                    fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[4]);
                                    st->ecnt++;
                                    return;
                              }
                              ope2 = atoi(var);
                        }
                        else
                              ope2 = atoi(argv[4]);

                        if (strcmp(argv[3], "+") == 0)
                              snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1 + ope2);
                        else if (strcmp(argv[3], "-") == 0)
                              snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1 - ope2);
                        else if (strcmp(argv[3], "*") == 0)
                              snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1 * ope2);
                        else if (strcmp(argv[3], "/") == 0)
                        {
                              if (ope2 == 0)
                              {
                                    fprintf(stderr, "%s: division by zero\n", argv[0]);
                                    st->ecnt++;
                                    return;
                              }
                              snprintf(res, sizeof(res), "%d", ope1 / ope2);
                        }
                        else
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "%s: unsupported operator %s\n", argv[0], argv[3]);
                              st->ecnt++;
                              return;
                        }
                  }

                  if (putVariable(st, argv[1], res) == false)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: out of memory\n", argv[0]);
                        st->ecnt++;
                        return;
                  }

                  st->listen = 1;
            }
            else if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[0], "sleep") == 0)
            {
                  char     *var;
                  int               usec;
                  struct timeval now;

                  if (*argv[1] == ':')
                  {
                        if ((var = getVariable(st, argv[1] + 1)) == NULL)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "%s: undefined variable %s\n", argv[0], argv[1]);
                              st->ecnt++;
                              return;
                        }
                        usec = atoi(var);
                  }
                  else
                        usec = atoi(argv[1]);

                  if (argc > 2)
                  {
                        if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[2], "ms") == 0)
                              usec *= 1000;
                        else if (pg_strcasecmp(argv[2], "s") == 0)
                              usec *= 1000000;
                  }
                  else
                        usec *= 1000000;

                  gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
                  st->until.tv_sec = now.tv_sec + (now.tv_usec + usec) / 1000000;
                  st->until.tv_usec = (now.tv_usec + usec) % 1000000;
                  st->sleeping = 1;

                  st->listen = 1;
            }

            goto top;
      }
}

/* discard connections */
static void
disconnect_all(CState * state)
{
      int               i;

      for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
      {
            if (state[i].con)
                  PQfinish(state[i].con);
      }
}

/* create tables and setup data */
static void
init(void)
{
      PGconn         *con;
      PGresult   *res;
      /*
       * Note: TPC-B requires at least 100 bytes per row, and the "filler"
       * fields in these table declarations were intended to comply with that.
       * But because they default to NULLs, they don't actually take any
       * space.  We could fix that by giving them non-null default values.
       * However, that would completely break comparability of pgbench
       * results with prior versions.  Since pgbench has never pretended
       * to be fully TPC-B compliant anyway, we stick with the historical
       * behavior.
       */
      static char *DDLs[] = {
            "drop table if exists branches",
            "create table branches(bid int not null,bbalance int,filler char(88)) with (fillfactor=%d)",
            "drop table if exists tellers",
            "create table tellers(tid int not null,bid int,tbalance int,filler char(84)) with (fillfactor=%d)",
            "drop table if exists accounts",
            "create table accounts(aid int not null,bid int,abalance int,filler char(84)) with (fillfactor=%d)",
            "drop table if exists history",
      "create table history(tid int,bid int,aid int,delta int,mtime timestamp,filler char(22))"};
      static char *DDLAFTERs[] = {
            "alter table branches add primary key (bid)",
            "alter table tellers add primary key (tid)",
      "alter table accounts add primary key (aid)"};


      char        sql[256];

      int               i;

      if ((con = doConnect()) == NULL)
            exit(1);

      for (i = 0; i < lengthof(DDLs); i++)
      {
            /*
             * set fillfactor for branches, tellers and accounts tables
             */
            if ((strstr(DDLs[i], "create table branches") == DDLs[i]) ||
                  (strstr(DDLs[i], "create table tellers") == DDLs[i]) ||
                  (strstr(DDLs[i], "create table accounts") == DDLs[i]))
            {
                  char        ddl_stmt[128];

                  snprintf(ddl_stmt, 128, DDLs[i], fillfactor);
                  executeStatement(con, ddl_stmt);
                  continue;
            }
            else
                  executeStatement(con, DDLs[i]);
      }

      executeStatement(con, "begin");

      for (i = 0; i < nbranches * scale; i++)
      {
            snprintf(sql, 256, "insert into branches(bid,bbalance) values(%d,0)", i + 1);
            executeStatement(con, sql);
      }

      for (i = 0; i < ntellers * scale; i++)
      {
            snprintf(sql, 256, "insert into tellers(tid,bid,tbalance) values (%d,%d,0)"
                         ,i + 1, i / ntellers + 1);
            executeStatement(con, sql);
      }

      executeStatement(con, "commit");

      /*
       * fill the accounts table with some data
       */
      fprintf(stderr, "creating tables...\n");

      executeStatement(con, "begin");
      executeStatement(con, "truncate accounts");

      res = PQexec(con, "copy accounts from stdin");
      if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_COPY_IN)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(con));
            exit(1);
      }
      PQclear(res);

      for (i = 0; i < naccounts * scale; i++)
      {
            int               j = i + 1;

            snprintf(sql, 256, "%d\t%d\t%d\t\n", j, i / naccounts + 1, 0);
            if (PQputline(con, sql))
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "PQputline failed\n");
                  exit(1);
            }

            if (j % 10000 == 0)
                  fprintf(stderr, "%d tuples done.\n", j);
      }
      if (PQputline(con, "\\.\n"))
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "very last PQputline failed\n");
            exit(1);
      }
      if (PQendcopy(con))
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "PQendcopy failed\n");
            exit(1);
      }
      executeStatement(con, "commit");

      /*
       * create indexes
       */
      fprintf(stderr, "set primary key...\n");
      for (i = 0; i < lengthof(DDLAFTERs); i++)
            executeStatement(con, DDLAFTERs[i]);

      /* vacuum */
      fprintf(stderr, "vacuum...");
      executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze branches");
      executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze tellers");
      executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze accounts");
      executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze history");

      fprintf(stderr, "done.\n");
      PQfinish(con);
}

/*
 * Parse the raw sql and replace :param to $n.
 */
static bool
parseQuery(Command *cmd, const char *raw_sql)
{
      char     *sql,
                     *p;

      sql = strdup(raw_sql);
      if (sql == NULL)
            return false;
      cmd->argc = 1;

      p = sql;
      while ((p = strchr(p, ':')) != NULL)
      {
            char  var[12];
            char   *name;
            int         eaten;

            name = parseVariable(p, &eaten);
            if (name == NULL)
            {
                  while (*p == ':') { p++; }
                  continue;
            }

            if (cmd->argc >= MAX_ARGS)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "statement has too many arguments (maximum is %d): %s\n", MAX_ARGS - 1, raw_sql);
                  return false;
            }

            sprintf(var, "$%d", cmd->argc);
            if ((p = replaceVariable(&sql, p, eaten, var)) == NULL)
                  return false;

            cmd->argv[cmd->argc] = name;
            cmd->argc++;
      }

      cmd->argv[0] = sql;
      return true;
}

static Command *
process_commands(char *buf)
{
      const char  delim[] = " \f\n\r\t\v";

      Command    *my_commands;
      int               j;
      char     *p,
                     *tok;

      if ((p = strchr(buf, '\n')) != NULL)
            *p = '\0';

      p = buf;
      while (isspace((unsigned char) *p))
            p++;

      if (*p == '\0' || strncmp(p, "--", 2) == 0)
      {
            return NULL;
      }

      my_commands = (Command *) malloc(sizeof(Command));
      if (my_commands == NULL)
      {
            return NULL;
      }

      my_commands->argc = 0;

      if (*p == '\\')
      {
            my_commands->type = META_COMMAND;

            j = 0;
            tok = strtok(++p, delim);

            while (tok != NULL)
            {
                  if ((my_commands->argv[j] = strdup(tok)) == NULL)
                        return NULL;

                  my_commands->argc++;

                  j++;
                  tok = strtok(NULL, delim);
            }

            if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[0], "setrandom") == 0)
            {
                  if (my_commands->argc < 4)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: missing argument\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
                        return NULL;
                  }

                  for (j = 4; j < my_commands->argc; j++)
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: extra argument \"%s\" ignored\n",
                                    my_commands->argv[0], my_commands->argv[j]);
            }
            else if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[0], "set") == 0)
            {
                  if (my_commands->argc < 3)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: missing argument\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
                        return NULL;
                  }

                  for (j = my_commands->argc < 5 ? 3 : 5; j < my_commands->argc; j++)
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: extra argument \"%s\" ignored\n",
                                    my_commands->argv[0], my_commands->argv[j]);
            }
            else if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[0], "sleep") == 0)
            {
                  if (my_commands->argc < 2)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: missing argument\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
                        return NULL;
                  }

                  if (my_commands->argc >= 3)
                  {
                        if (pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[2], "us") != 0 &&
                              pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[2], "ms") != 0 &&
                              pg_strcasecmp(my_commands->argv[2], "s"))
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "%s: unknown time unit '%s' - must be us, ms or s\n",
                                          my_commands->argv[0], my_commands->argv[2]);
                              return NULL;
                        }
                  }

                  for (j = 3; j < my_commands->argc; j++)
                        fprintf(stderr, "%s: extra argument \"%s\" ignored\n",
                                    my_commands->argv[0], my_commands->argv[j]);
            }
            else
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Invalid command %s\n", my_commands->argv[0]);
                  return NULL;
            }
      }
      else
      {
            my_commands->type = SQL_COMMAND;

            switch (querymode)
            {
                  case QUERY_SIMPLE:
                        if ((my_commands->argv[0] = strdup(p)) == NULL)
                              return NULL;
                        my_commands->argc++;
                        break;
                  case QUERY_EXTENDED:
                  case QUERY_PREPARED:
                        if (!parseQuery(my_commands, p))
                              return NULL;
                        break;
                  default:
                        return NULL;
            }
      }

      return my_commands;
}

static int
process_file(char *filename)
{
#define COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM 128

      Command   **my_commands;
      FILE     *fd;
      int               lineno;
      char        buf[BUFSIZ];
      int               alloc_num;

      if (num_files >= MAX_FILES)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "Up to only %d SQL files are allowed\n", MAX_FILES);
            exit(1);
      }

      alloc_num = COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
      my_commands = (Command **) malloc(sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
      if (my_commands == NULL)
            return false;

      if (strcmp(filename, "-") == 0)
            fd = stdin;
      else if ((fd = fopen(filename, "r")) == NULL)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n", filename, strerror(errno));
            return false;
      }

      lineno = 0;

      while (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), fd) != NULL)
      {
            Command    *commands;
            int               i;

            i = 0;
            while (isspace((unsigned char) buf[i]))
                  i++;

            if (buf[i] != '\0' && strncmp(&buf[i], "--", 2) != 0)
            {
                  commands = process_commands(&buf[i]);
                  if (commands == NULL)
                  {
                        fclose(fd);
                        return false;
                  }
            }
            else
                  continue;

            my_commands[lineno] = commands;
            lineno++;

            if (lineno >= alloc_num)
            {
                  alloc_num += COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
                  my_commands = realloc(my_commands, sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
                  if (my_commands == NULL)
                  {
                        fclose(fd);
                        return false;
                  }
            }
      }
      fclose(fd);

      my_commands[lineno] = NULL;

      sql_files[num_files++] = my_commands;

      return true;
}

static Command **
process_builtin(char *tb)
{
#define COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM 128

      Command   **my_commands;
      int               lineno;
      char        buf[BUFSIZ];
      int               alloc_num;

      if (*tb == '\0')
            return NULL;

      alloc_num = COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
      my_commands = (Command **) malloc(sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
      if (my_commands == NULL)
            return NULL;

      lineno = 0;

      for (;;)
      {
            char     *p;
            Command    *commands;

            p = buf;
            while (*tb && *tb != '\n')
                  *p++ = *tb++;

            if (*tb == '\0')
                  break;

            if (*tb == '\n')
                  tb++;

            *p = '\0';

            commands = process_commands(buf);
            if (commands == NULL)
            {
                  return NULL;
            }

            my_commands[lineno] = commands;
            lineno++;

            if (lineno >= alloc_num)
            {
                  alloc_num += COMMANDS_ALLOC_NUM;
                  my_commands = realloc(my_commands, sizeof(Command *) * alloc_num);
                  if (my_commands == NULL)
                  {
                        return NULL;
                  }
            }
      }

      my_commands[lineno] = NULL;

      return my_commands;
}

/* print out results */
static void
printResults(
                   int ttype, CState * state,
                   struct timeval * start_time, struct timeval * end_time)
{
      double            t1,
                        t2;
      int               i;
      int               normal_xacts = 0;
      char     *s;

      for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
            normal_xacts += state[i].cnt;

      t1 = (end_time->tv_sec - start_time->tv_sec) * 1000000.0 + (end_time->tv_usec - start_time->tv_usec);
      t1 = normal_xacts * 1000000.0 / t1;

      t2 = (end_time->tv_sec - start_time->tv_sec - conn_total_time.tv_sec) * 1000000.0 +
            (end_time->tv_usec - start_time->tv_usec - conn_total_time.tv_usec);
      t2 = normal_xacts * 1000000.0 / t2;

      if (ttype == 0)
            s = "TPC-B (sort of)";
      else if (ttype == 2)
            s = "Update only accounts";
      else if (ttype == 1)
            s = "SELECT only";
      else
            s = "Custom query";

      printf("transaction type: %s\n", s);
      printf("scaling factor: %d\n", scale);
      printf("query mode: %s\n", QUERYMODE[querymode]);
      printf("number of clients: %d\n", nclients);
      if (duration <= 0)
      {
            printf("number of transactions per client: %d\n", nxacts);
            printf("number of transactions actually processed: %d/%d\n",
                     normal_xacts, nxacts * nclients);
      }
      else
      {
            printf("duration: %d s\n", duration);
            printf("number of transactions actually processed: %d\n",
                     normal_xacts);
      }
      printf("tps = %f (including connections establishing)\n", t1);
      printf("tps = %f (excluding connections establishing)\n", t2);
}


int
main(int argc, char **argv)
{
      int               c;
      int               is_init_mode = 0;       /* initialize mode? */
      int               is_no_vacuum = 0;       /* no vacuum at all before testing? */
      int               do_vacuum_accounts = 0; /* do vacuum accounts before testing? */
      int               debug = 0;        /* debug flag */
      int               ttype = 0;        /* transaction type. 0: TPC-B, 1: SELECT only,
                                                 * 2: skip update of branches and tellers */
      char     *filename = NULL;
      bool        scale_given = false;

      CState         *state;              /* status of clients */

      struct timeval start_time;                /* start up time */
      struct timeval end_time;                  /* end time */

      int               i;

      fd_set            input_mask;
      int               nsocks;                 /* return from select(2) */
      int               maxsock;          /* max socket number to be waited */
      struct timeval now;
      struct timeval timeout;
      int               min_usec;

#ifdef HAVE_GETRLIMIT
      struct rlimit rlim;
#endif

      PGconn         *con;
      PGresult   *res;
      char     *env;

      char        val[64];

      const char *progname;

      progname = get_progname(argv[0]);

      if (argc > 1)
      {
            if (strcmp(argv[1], "--help") == 0 || strcmp(argv[1], "-?") == 0)
            {
                  usage(progname);
                  exit(0);
            }
            if (strcmp(argv[1], "--version") == 0 || strcmp(argv[1], "-V") == 0)
            {
                  puts("pgbench (PostgreSQL) " PG_VERSION);
                  exit(0);
            }
      }

#ifdef WIN32
      /* stderr is buffered on Win32. */
      setvbuf(stderr, NULL, _IONBF, 0);
#endif

      if ((env = getenv("PGHOST")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
            pghost = env;
      if ((env = getenv("PGPORT")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
            pgport = env;
      else if ((env = getenv("PGUSER")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
            login = env;

      state = (CState *) malloc(sizeof(CState));
      if (state == NULL)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for state\n");
            exit(1);
      }

      memset(state, 0, sizeof(*state));

      while ((c = getopt(argc, argv, "ih:nvp:dSNc:Cs:t:T:U:lf:D:F:M:")) != -1)
      {
            switch (c)
            {
                  case 'i':
                        is_init_mode++;
                        break;
                  case 'h':
                        pghost = optarg;
                        break;
                  case 'n':
                        is_no_vacuum++;
                        break;
                  case 'v':
                        do_vacuum_accounts++;
                        break;
                  case 'p':
                        pgport = optarg;
                        break;
                  case 'd':
                        debug++;
                        break;
                  case 'S':
                        ttype = 1;
                        break;
                  case 'N':
                        ttype = 2;
                        break;
                  case 'c':
                        nclients = atoi(optarg);
                        if (nclients <= 0 || nclients > MAXCLIENTS)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "invalid number of clients: %d\n", nclients);
                              exit(1);
                        }
#ifdef HAVE_GETRLIMIT
#ifdef RLIMIT_NOFILE                /* most platforms use RLIMIT_NOFILE */
                        if (getrlimit(RLIMIT_NOFILE, &rlim) == -1)
#else                                     /* but BSD doesn't ... */
                        if (getrlimit(RLIMIT_OFILE, &rlim) == -1)
#endif   /* RLIMIT_NOFILE */
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "getrlimit failed: %s\n", strerror(errno));
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        if (rlim.rlim_cur <= (nclients + 2))
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "You need at least %d open files but you are only allowed to use %ld.\n", nclients + 2, (long) rlim.rlim_cur);
                              fprintf(stderr, "Use limit/ulimit to increase the limit before using pgbench.\n");
                              exit(1);
                        }
#endif   /* HAVE_GETRLIMIT */
                        break;
                  case 'C':
                        is_connect = 1;
                        break;
                  case 's':
                        scale_given = true;
                        scale = atoi(optarg);
                        if (scale <= 0)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "invalid scaling factor: %d\n", scale);
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        break;
                  case 't':
                        if (duration > 0)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "specify either a number of transactions (-t) or a duration (-T), not both.\n");
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        nxacts = atoi(optarg);
                        if (nxacts <= 0)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "invalid number of transactions: %d\n", nxacts);
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        break;
                  case 'T':
                        if (nxacts > 0)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "specify either a number of transactions (-t) or a duration (-T), not both.\n");
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        duration = atoi(optarg);
                        if (duration <= 0)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "invalid duration: %d\n", duration);
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        break;
                  case 'U':
                        login = optarg;
                        break;
                  case 'l':
                        use_log = true;
                        break;
                  case 'f':
                        ttype = 3;
                        filename = optarg;
                        if (process_file(filename) == false || *sql_files[num_files - 1] == NULL)
                              exit(1);
                        break;
                  case 'D':
                        {
                              char     *p;

                              if ((p = strchr(optarg, '=')) == NULL || p == optarg || *(p + 1) == '\0')
                              {
                                    fprintf(stderr, "invalid variable definition: %s\n", optarg);
                                    exit(1);
                              }

                              *p++ = '\0';
                              if (putVariable(&state[0], optarg, p) == false)
                              {
                                    fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for variable\n");
                                    exit(1);
                              }
                        }
                        break;
                  case 'F':
                        fillfactor = atoi(optarg);
                        if ((fillfactor < 10) || (fillfactor > 100))
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "invalid fillfactor: %d\n", fillfactor);
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        break;
                  case 'M':
                        if (num_files > 0)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "query mode (-M) should be specifiled before transaction scripts (-f)\n");
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        for (querymode = 0; querymode < NUM_QUERYMODE; querymode++)
                              if (strcmp(optarg, QUERYMODE[querymode]) == 0)
                                    break;
                        if (querymode >= NUM_QUERYMODE)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "invalid query mode (-M): %s\n", optarg);
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        break;
                  default:
                        fprintf(stderr, _("Try \"%s --help\" for more information.\n"), progname);
                        exit(1);
                        break;
            }
      }

      if (argc > optind)
            dbName = argv[optind];
      else
      {
            if ((env = getenv("PGDATABASE")) != NULL && *env != '\0')
                  dbName = env;
            else if (login != NULL && *login != '\0')
                  dbName = login;
            else
                  dbName = "";
      }

      if (is_init_mode)
      {
            init();
            exit(0);
      }

      /* Use DEFAULT_NXACTS if neither nxacts nor duration is specified. */
      if (nxacts <= 0 && duration <= 0)
            nxacts = DEFAULT_NXACTS;

      remains = nclients;

      if (nclients > 1)
      {
            state = (CState *) realloc(state, sizeof(CState) * nclients);
            if (state == NULL)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for state\n");
                  exit(1);
            }

            memset(state + 1, 0, sizeof(*state) * (nclients - 1));

            /* copy any -D switch values to all clients */
            for (i = 1; i < nclients; i++)
            {
                  int               j;

                  for (j = 0; j < state[0].nvariables; j++)
                  {
                        if (putVariable(&state[i], state[0].variables[j].name, state[0].variables[j].value) == false)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for variable\n");
                              exit(1);
                        }
                  }
            }
      }

      if (use_log)
      {
            char        logpath[64];

            snprintf(logpath, 64, "pgbench_log.%d", (int) getpid());
            LOGFILE = fopen(logpath, "w");

            if (LOGFILE == NULL)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't open logfile \"%s\": %s", logpath, strerror(errno));
                  exit(1);
            }
      }

      if (debug)
      {
            if (duration <= 0)
                  printf("pghost: %s pgport: %s nclients: %d nxacts: %d dbName: %s\n",
                     pghost, pgport, nclients, nxacts, dbName);
            else
                  printf("pghost: %s pgport: %s nclients: %d duration: %d dbName: %s\n",
                     pghost, pgport, nclients, duration, dbName);
      }

      /* opening connection... */
      con = doConnect();
      if (con == NULL)
            exit(1);

      if (PQstatus(con) == CONNECTION_BAD)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "Connection to database '%s' failed.\n", dbName);
            fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(con));
            exit(1);
      }

      if (ttype != 3)
      {
            /*
             * get the scaling factor that should be same as count(*) from
             * branches if this is not a custom query
             */
            res = PQexec(con, "select count(*) from branches");
            if (PQresultStatus(res) != PGRES_TUPLES_OK)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "%s", PQerrorMessage(con));
                  exit(1);
            }
            scale = atoi(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0));
            if (scale < 0)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "count(*) from branches invalid (%d)\n", scale);
                  exit(1);
            }
            PQclear(res);

            /* warn if we override user-given -s switch */
            if (scale_given)
                  fprintf(stderr,
                              "Scale option ignored, using branches table count = %d\n",
                              scale);
      }

      /*
       * :scale variables normally get -s or database scale, but don't override
       * an explicit -D switch
       */
      if (getVariable(&state[0], "scale") == NULL)
      {
            snprintf(val, sizeof(val), "%d", scale);
            for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
            {
                  if (putVariable(&state[i], "scale", val) == false)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "Couldn't allocate memory for variable\n");
                        exit(1);
                  }
            }
      }

      if (!is_no_vacuum)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "starting vacuum...");
            executeStatement(con, "vacuum branches");
            executeStatement(con, "vacuum tellers");
            executeStatement(con, "truncate history");
            fprintf(stderr, "end.\n");

            if (do_vacuum_accounts)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "starting vacuum accounts...");
                  executeStatement(con, "vacuum analyze accounts");
                  fprintf(stderr, "end.\n");
            }
      }
      PQfinish(con);

      /* set random seed */
      gettimeofday(&start_time, NULL);
      srandom((unsigned int) start_time.tv_usec);

      /* get start up time */
      gettimeofday(&start_time, NULL);

      /* set alarm if duration is specified. */
      if (duration > 0)
            setalarm(duration);

      if (is_connect == 0)
      {
            struct timeval t, now;

            /* make connections to the database */
            for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
            {
                  state[i].id = i;
                  if ((state[i].con = doConnect()) == NULL)
                        exit(1);
            }
            /* time after connections set up */
            gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
            diffTime(&now, &start_time, &t);
            addTime(&conn_total_time, &t, &conn_total_time);
      }

      /* process bultin SQL scripts */
      switch (ttype)
      {
            case 0:
                  sql_files[0] = process_builtin(tpc_b);
                  num_files = 1;
                  break;

            case 1:
                  sql_files[0] = process_builtin(select_only);
                  num_files = 1;
                  break;

            case 2:
                  sql_files[0] = process_builtin(simple_update);
                  num_files = 1;
                  break;

            default:
                  break;
      }

      /* send start up queries in async manner */
      for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
      {
            Command   **commands = sql_files[state[i].use_file];
            int               prev_ecnt = state[i].ecnt;

            state[i].use_file = getrand(0, num_files - 1);
            doCustom(state, i, debug);

            if (state[i].ecnt > prev_ecnt && commands[state[i].state]->type == META_COMMAND)
            {
                  fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in state %d. Execution meta-command failed.\n", i, state[i].state);
                  remains--;              /* I've aborted */
                  PQfinish(state[i].con);
                  state[i].con = NULL;
            }
      }

      for (;;)
      {
            if (remains <= 0)
            {                                   /* all done ? */
                  disconnect_all(state);
                  /* get end time */
                  gettimeofday(&end_time, NULL);
                  printResults(ttype, state, &start_time, &end_time);
                  if (LOGFILE)
                        fclose(LOGFILE);
                  exit(0);
            }

            FD_ZERO(&input_mask);

            maxsock = -1;
            min_usec = -1;
            for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
            {
                  Command   **commands = sql_files[state[i].use_file];

                  if (state[i].sleeping)
                  {
                        int               this_usec;
                        int               sock = PQsocket(state[i].con);

                        if (min_usec < 0)
                        {
                              gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
                              min_usec = 0;
                        }

                        this_usec = (state[i].until.tv_sec - now.tv_sec) * 1000000 +
                              state[i].until.tv_usec - now.tv_usec;

                        if (this_usec > 0 && (min_usec == 0 || this_usec < min_usec))
                              min_usec = this_usec;

                        FD_SET(sock, &input_mask);
                        if (maxsock < sock)
                              maxsock = sock;
                  }
                  else if (state[i].con && commands[state[i].state]->type != META_COMMAND)
                  {
                        int               sock = PQsocket(state[i].con);

                        if (sock < 0)
                        {
                              disconnect_all(state);
                              exit(1);
                        }
                        FD_SET(sock, &input_mask);
                        if (maxsock < sock)
                              maxsock = sock;
                  }
            }

            if (maxsock != -1)
            {
                  if (min_usec >= 0)
                  {
                        timeout.tv_sec = min_usec / 1000000;
                        timeout.tv_usec = min_usec % 1000000;

                        nsocks = select(maxsock + 1, &input_mask, (fd_set *) NULL,
                                                (fd_set *) NULL, &timeout);
                  }
                  else
                        nsocks = select(maxsock + 1, &input_mask, (fd_set *) NULL,
                                                (fd_set *) NULL, (struct timeval *) NULL);
                  if (nsocks < 0)
                  {
                        if (errno == EINTR)
                              continue;
                        /* must be something wrong */
                        disconnect_all(state);
                        fprintf(stderr, "select failed: %s\n", strerror(errno));
                        exit(1);
                  }
#ifdef NOT_USED
                  else if (nsocks == 0)
                  {                             /* timeout */
                        fprintf(stderr, "select timeout\n");
                        for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
                        {
                              fprintf(stderr, "client %d:state %d cnt %d ecnt %d listen %d\n",
                                          i, state[i].state, state[i].cnt, state[i].ecnt, state[i].listen);
                        }
                        exit(0);
                  }
#endif
            }

            /* ok, backend returns reply */
            for (i = 0; i < nclients; i++)
            {
                  Command   **commands = sql_files[state[i].use_file];
                  int               prev_ecnt = state[i].ecnt;

                  if (state[i].con && (FD_ISSET(PQsocket(state[i].con), &input_mask)
                                      || commands[state[i].state]->type == META_COMMAND))
                  {
                        doCustom(state, i, debug);
                  }

                  if (state[i].ecnt > prev_ecnt && commands[state[i].state]->type == META_COMMAND)
                  {
                        fprintf(stderr, "Client %d aborted in state %d. Execution of meta-command failed.\n", i, state[i].state);
                        remains--;        /* I've aborted */
                        PQfinish(state[i].con);
                        state[i].con = NULL;
                  }
            }
      }
}


/*
 * Support for duration option: set timer_exceeded after so many seconds.
 */

#ifndef WIN32

static void
handle_sig_alarm(SIGNAL_ARGS)
{
      timer_exceeded = true;
}

static void
setalarm(int seconds)
{
      pqsignal(SIGALRM, handle_sig_alarm);
      alarm(seconds);
}

#else  /* WIN32 */

static VOID CALLBACK
win32_timer_callback(PVOID lpParameter, BOOLEAN TimerOrWaitFired)
{
      timer_exceeded = true;
}

static void
setalarm(int seconds)
{
      HANDLE      queue;
      HANDLE      timer;

      /* This function will be called at most once, so we can cheat a bit. */
      queue = CreateTimerQueue();
      if (seconds > ((DWORD)-1) / 1000 ||
            !CreateTimerQueueTimer(&timer, queue,
                                             win32_timer_callback, NULL, seconds * 1000, 0,
                                             WT_EXECUTEINTIMERTHREAD | WT_EXECUTEONLYONCE))
      {
            fprintf(stderr, "Failed to set timer\n");
            exit(1);
      }
}

#endif  /* WIN32 */

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