/*------------------------------------------------------------------------- * * planmain.c * Routines to plan a single query * * What's in a name, anyway? The top-level entry point of the planner/ * optimizer is over in planner.c, not here as you might think from the * file name. But this is the main code for planning a basic join operation, * shorn of features like subselects, inheritance, aggregates, grouping, * and so on. (Those are the things planner.c deals with.) * * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2009, PostgreSQL Global Development Group * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California * * * IDENTIFICATION * $PostgreSQL$ * *------------------------------------------------------------------------- */ #include "postgres.h" #include "optimizer/cost.h" #include "optimizer/pathnode.h" #include "optimizer/paths.h" #include "optimizer/placeholder.h" #include "optimizer/planmain.h" #include "optimizer/tlist.h" #include "utils/selfuncs.h" /* * query_planner * Generate a path (that is, a simplified plan) for a basic query, * which may involve joins but not any fancier features. * * Since query_planner does not handle the toplevel processing (grouping, * sorting, etc) it cannot select the best path by itself. It selects * two paths: the cheapest path that produces all the required tuples, * independent of any ordering considerations, and the cheapest path that * produces the expected fraction of the required tuples in the required * ordering, if there is a path that is cheaper for this than just sorting * the output of the cheapest overall path. The caller (grouping_planner) * will make the final decision about which to use. * * Input parameters: * root describes the query to plan * tlist is the target list the query should produce * (this is NOT necessarily root->parse->targetList!) * tuple_fraction is the fraction of tuples we expect will be retrieved * limit_tuples is a hard limit on number of tuples to retrieve, * or -1 if no limit * * Output parameters: * *cheapest_path receives the overall-cheapest path for the query * *sorted_path receives the cheapest presorted path for the query, * if any (NULL if there is no useful presorted path) * *num_groups receives the estimated number of groups, or 1 if query * does not use grouping * * Note: the PlannerInfo node also includes a query_pathkeys field, which is * both an input and an output of query_planner(). The input value signals * query_planner that the indicated sort order is wanted in the final output * plan. But this value has not yet been "canonicalized", since the needed * info does not get computed until we scan the qual clauses. We canonicalize * it as soon as that task is done. (The main reason query_pathkeys is a * PlannerInfo field and not a passed parameter is that the low-level routines * in indxpath.c need to see it.) * * Note: the PlannerInfo node also includes group_pathkeys, window_pathkeys, * distinct_pathkeys, and sort_pathkeys, which like query_pathkeys need to be * canonicalized once the info is available. * * tuple_fraction is interpreted as follows: * 0: expect all tuples to be retrieved (normal case) * 0 < tuple_fraction < 1: expect the given fraction of tuples available * from the plan to be retrieved * tuple_fraction >= 1: tuple_fraction is the absolute number of tuples * expected to be retrieved (ie, a LIMIT specification) * Note that a nonzero tuple_fraction could come from outer context; it is * therefore not redundant with limit_tuples. We use limit_tuples to determine * whether a bounded sort can be used at runtime. */ void query_planner(PlannerInfo *root, List *tlist, double tuple_fraction, double limit_tuples, Path **cheapest_path, Path **sorted_path, double *num_groups) { Query *parse = root->parse; List *joinlist; RelOptInfo *final_rel; Path *cheapestpath; Path *sortedpath; Index rti; ListCell *lc; double total_pages; /* Make tuple_fraction accessible to lower-level routines */ root->tuple_fraction = tuple_fraction; *num_groups = 1; /* default result */ /* * If the query has an empty join tree, then it's something easy like * "SELECT 2+2;" or "INSERT ... VALUES()". Fall through quickly. */ if (parse->jointree->fromlist == NIL) { /* We need a trivial path result */ *cheapest_path = (Path *) create_result_path((List *) parse->jointree->quals); *sorted_path = NULL; /* * We still are required to canonicalize any pathkeys, in case it's * something like "SELECT 2+2 ORDER BY 1". */ root->canon_pathkeys = NIL; root->query_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->query_pathkeys); root->group_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->group_pathkeys); root->window_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->window_pathkeys); root->distinct_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->distinct_pathkeys); root->sort_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->sort_pathkeys); return; } /* * Init planner lists to empty, and set up the array to hold RelOptInfos * for "simple" rels. * * NOTE: append_rel_list was set up by subquery_planner, so do not touch * here; eq_classes may contain data already, too. */ root->simple_rel_array_size = list_length(parse->rtable) + 1; root->simple_rel_array = (RelOptInfo **) palloc0(root->simple_rel_array_size * sizeof(RelOptInfo *)); root->join_rel_list = NIL; root->join_rel_hash = NULL; root->canon_pathkeys = NIL; root->left_join_clauses = NIL; root->right_join_clauses = NIL; root->full_join_clauses = NIL; root->join_info_list = NIL; root->placeholder_list = NIL; root->initial_rels = NIL; /* * Make a flattened version of the rangetable for faster access (this is * OK because the rangetable won't change any more). */ root->simple_rte_array = (RangeTblEntry **) palloc0(root->simple_rel_array_size * sizeof(RangeTblEntry *)); rti = 1; foreach(lc, parse->rtable) { RangeTblEntry *rte = (RangeTblEntry *) lfirst(lc); root->simple_rte_array[rti++] = rte; } /* * Construct RelOptInfo nodes for all base relations in query, and * indirectly for all appendrel member relations ("other rels"). This * will give us a RelOptInfo for every "simple" (non-join) rel involved in * the query. * * Note: the reason we find the rels by searching the jointree and * appendrel list, rather than just scanning the rangetable, is that the * rangetable may contain RTEs for rels not actively part of the query, * for example views. We don't want to make RelOptInfos for them. */ add_base_rels_to_query(root, (Node *) parse->jointree); /* * We should now have size estimates for every actual table involved in * the query, so we can compute total_table_pages. Note that appendrels * are not double-counted here, even though we don't bother to distinguish * RelOptInfos for appendrel parents, because the parents will still have * size zero. * * XXX if a table is self-joined, we will count it once per appearance, * which perhaps is the wrong thing ... but that's not completely clear, * and detecting self-joins here is difficult, so ignore it for now. */ total_pages = 0; for (rti = 1; rti < root->simple_rel_array_size; rti++) { RelOptInfo *brel = root->simple_rel_array[rti]; if (brel == NULL) continue; Assert(brel->relid == rti); /* sanity check on array */ total_pages += (double) brel->pages; } root->total_table_pages = total_pages; /* * Examine the targetlist and qualifications, adding entries to baserel * targetlists for all referenced Vars. Restrict and join clauses are * added to appropriate lists belonging to the mentioned relations. We * also build EquivalenceClasses for provably equivalent expressions, and * form a target joinlist for make_one_rel() to work from. */ build_base_rel_tlists(root, tlist); joinlist = deconstruct_jointree(root); /* * Reconsider any postponed outer-join quals now that we have built up * equivalence classes. (This could result in further additions or * mergings of classes.) */ reconsider_outer_join_clauses(root); /* * If we formed any equivalence classes, generate additional restriction * clauses as appropriate. (Implied join clauses are formed on-the-fly * later.) */ generate_base_implied_equalities(root); /* * We have completed merging equivalence sets, so it's now possible to * convert the requested query_pathkeys to canonical form. Also * canonicalize the groupClause, windowClause, distinctClause and * sortClause pathkeys for use later. */ root->query_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->query_pathkeys); root->group_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->group_pathkeys); root->window_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->window_pathkeys); root->distinct_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->distinct_pathkeys); root->sort_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->sort_pathkeys); /* * Examine any "placeholder" expressions generated during subquery pullup. * Make sure that we know what level to evaluate them at, and that the * Vars they need are marked as needed. */ fix_placeholder_eval_levels(root); /* * Ready to do the primary planning. */ final_rel = make_one_rel(root, joinlist); if (!final_rel || !final_rel->cheapest_total_path) elog(ERROR, "failed to construct the join relation"); /* * If there's grouping going on, estimate the number of result groups. We * couldn't do this any earlier because it depends on relation size * estimates that were set up above. * * Then convert tuple_fraction to fractional form if it is absolute, and * adjust it based on the knowledge that grouping_planner will be doing * grouping or aggregation work with our result. * * This introduces some undesirable coupling between this code and * grouping_planner, but the alternatives seem even uglier; we couldn't * pass back completed paths without making these decisions here. */ if (parse->groupClause) { List *groupExprs; groupExprs = get_sortgrouplist_exprs(parse->groupClause, parse->targetList); *num_groups = estimate_num_groups(root, groupExprs, final_rel->rows); /* * In GROUP BY mode, an absolute LIMIT is relative to the number of * groups not the number of tuples. If the caller gave us a fraction, * keep it as-is. (In both cases, we are effectively assuming that * all the groups are about the same size.) */ if (tuple_fraction >= 1.0) tuple_fraction /= *num_groups; /* * If both GROUP BY and ORDER BY are specified, we will need two * levels of sort --- and, therefore, certainly need to read all the * tuples --- unless ORDER BY is a subset of GROUP BY. Likewise if * we have both DISTINCT and GROUP BY, or if we have a window * specification not compatible with the GROUP BY. */ if (!pathkeys_contained_in(root->sort_pathkeys, root->group_pathkeys) || !pathkeys_contained_in(root->distinct_pathkeys, root->group_pathkeys) || !pathkeys_contained_in(root->window_pathkeys, root->group_pathkeys)) tuple_fraction = 0.0; } else if (parse->hasAggs || root->hasHavingQual) { /* * Ungrouped aggregate will certainly want to read all the tuples, and * it will deliver a single result row (so leave *num_groups 1). */ tuple_fraction = 0.0; } else if (parse->distinctClause) { /* * Since there was no grouping or aggregation, it's reasonable to * assume the UNIQUE filter has effects comparable to GROUP BY. Return * the estimated number of output rows for use by caller. (If DISTINCT * is used with grouping, we ignore its effects for rowcount * estimation purposes; this amounts to assuming the grouped rows are * distinct already.) */ List *distinctExprs; distinctExprs = get_sortgrouplist_exprs(parse->distinctClause, parse->targetList); *num_groups = estimate_num_groups(root, distinctExprs, final_rel->rows); /* * Adjust tuple_fraction the same way as for GROUP BY, too. */ if (tuple_fraction >= 1.0) tuple_fraction /= *num_groups; } else { /* * Plain non-grouped, non-aggregated query: an absolute tuple fraction * can be divided by the number of tuples. */ if (tuple_fraction >= 1.0) tuple_fraction /= final_rel->rows; } /* * Pick out the cheapest-total path and the cheapest presorted path for * the requested pathkeys (if there is one). We should take the tuple * fraction into account when selecting the cheapest presorted path, but * not when selecting the cheapest-total path, since if we have to sort * then we'll have to fetch all the tuples. (But there's a special case: * if query_pathkeys is NIL, meaning order doesn't matter, then the * "cheapest presorted" path will be the cheapest overall for the tuple * fraction.) * * The cheapest-total path is also the one to use if grouping_planner * decides to use hashed aggregation, so we return it separately even if * this routine thinks the presorted path is the winner. */ cheapestpath = final_rel->cheapest_total_path; sortedpath = get_cheapest_fractional_path_for_pathkeys(final_rel->pathlist, root->query_pathkeys, tuple_fraction); /* Don't return same path in both guises; just wastes effort */ if (sortedpath == cheapestpath) sortedpath = NULL; /* * Forget about the presorted path if it would be cheaper to sort the * cheapest-total path. Here we need consider only the behavior at the * tuple fraction point. */ if (sortedpath) { Path sort_path; /* dummy for result of cost_sort */ if (root->query_pathkeys == NIL || pathkeys_contained_in(root->query_pathkeys, cheapestpath->pathkeys)) { /* No sort needed for cheapest path */ sort_path.startup_cost = cheapestpath->startup_cost; sort_path.total_cost = cheapestpath->total_cost; } else { /* Figure cost for sorting */ cost_sort(&sort_path, root, root->query_pathkeys, cheapestpath->total_cost, final_rel->rows, final_rel->width, limit_tuples); } if (compare_fractional_path_costs(sortedpath, &sort_path, tuple_fraction) > 0) { /* Presorted path is a loser */ sortedpath = NULL; } } *cheapest_path = cheapestpath; *sorted_path = sortedpath; }

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