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 * planmain.c
 *      Routines to plan a single query
 * What's in a name, anyway?  The top-level entry point of the planner/
 * optimizer is over in planner.c, not here as you might think from the
 * file name.  But this is the main code for planning a basic join operation,
 * shorn of features like subselects, inheritance, aggregates, grouping,
 * and so on.  (Those are the things planner.c deals with.)
 * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2009, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
 * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
 *      $PostgreSQL: pgsql/src/backend/optimizer/plan/planmain.c,v 1.115 2009/06/11 14:48:59 momjian Exp $
#include "postgres.h"

#include "optimizer/cost.h"
#include "optimizer/pathnode.h"
#include "optimizer/paths.h"
#include "optimizer/placeholder.h"
#include "optimizer/planmain.h"
#include "optimizer/tlist.h"
#include "utils/selfuncs.h"

 * query_planner
 *      Generate a path (that is, a simplified plan) for a basic query,
 *      which may involve joins but not any fancier features.
 * Since query_planner does not handle the toplevel processing (grouping,
 * sorting, etc) it cannot select the best path by itself.  It selects
 * two paths: the cheapest path that produces all the required tuples,
 * independent of any ordering considerations, and the cheapest path that
 * produces the expected fraction of the required tuples in the required
 * ordering, if there is a path that is cheaper for this than just sorting
 * the output of the cheapest overall path.  The caller (grouping_planner)
 * will make the final decision about which to use.
 * Input parameters:
 * root describes the query to plan
 * tlist is the target list the query should produce
 *          (this is NOT necessarily root->parse->targetList!)
 * tuple_fraction is the fraction of tuples we expect will be retrieved
 * limit_tuples is a hard limit on number of tuples to retrieve,
 *          or -1 if no limit
 * Output parameters:
 * *cheapest_path receives the overall-cheapest path for the query
 * *sorted_path receives the cheapest presorted path for the query,
 *                      if any (NULL if there is no useful presorted path)
 * *num_groups receives the estimated number of groups, or 1 if query
 *                      does not use grouping
 * Note: the PlannerInfo node also includes a query_pathkeys field, which is
 * both an input and an output of query_planner().    The input value signals
 * query_planner that the indicated sort order is wanted in the final output
 * plan.  But this value has not yet been "canonicalized", since the needed
 * info does not get computed until we scan the qual clauses.  We canonicalize
 * it as soon as that task is done.  (The main reason query_pathkeys is a
 * PlannerInfo field and not a passed parameter is that the low-level routines
 * in indxpath.c need to see it.)
 * Note: the PlannerInfo node also includes group_pathkeys, window_pathkeys,
 * distinct_pathkeys, and sort_pathkeys, which like query_pathkeys need to be
 * canonicalized once the info is available.
 * tuple_fraction is interpreted as follows:
 *      0: expect all tuples to be retrieved (normal case)
 *      0 < tuple_fraction < 1: expect the given fraction of tuples available
 *          from the plan to be retrieved
 *      tuple_fraction >= 1: tuple_fraction is the absolute number of tuples
 *          expected to be retrieved (ie, a LIMIT specification)
 * Note that a nonzero tuple_fraction could come from outer context; it is
 * therefore not redundant with limit_tuples.  We use limit_tuples to determine
 * whether a bounded sort can be used at runtime.
query_planner(PlannerInfo *root, List *tlist,
                    double tuple_fraction, double limit_tuples,
                    Path **cheapest_path, Path **sorted_path,
                    double *num_groups)
      Query    *parse = root->parse;
      List     *joinlist;
      RelOptInfo *final_rel;
      Path     *cheapestpath;
      Path     *sortedpath;
      Index       rti;
      ListCell   *lc;
      double            total_pages;

      /* Make tuple_fraction accessible to lower-level routines */
      root->tuple_fraction = tuple_fraction;

      *num_groups = 1;              /* default result */

       * If the query has an empty join tree, then it's something easy like
       * "SELECT 2+2;" or "INSERT ... VALUES()".      Fall through quickly.
      if (parse->jointree->fromlist == NIL)
            /* We need a trivial path result */
            *cheapest_path = (Path *)
                  create_result_path((List *) parse->jointree->quals);
            *sorted_path = NULL;

             * We still are required to canonicalize any pathkeys, in case it's
             * something like "SELECT 2+2 ORDER BY 1".
            root->canon_pathkeys = NIL;
            root->query_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root,
            root->group_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root,
            root->window_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root,
            root->distinct_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root,
            root->sort_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root,

       * Init planner lists to empty, and set up the array to hold RelOptInfos
       * for "simple" rels.
       * NOTE: append_rel_list was set up by subquery_planner, so do not touch
       * here; eq_classes may contain data already, too.
      root->simple_rel_array_size = list_length(parse->rtable) + 1;
      root->simple_rel_array = (RelOptInfo **)
            palloc0(root->simple_rel_array_size * sizeof(RelOptInfo *));
      root->join_rel_list = NIL;
      root->join_rel_hash = NULL;
      root->canon_pathkeys = NIL;
      root->left_join_clauses = NIL;
      root->right_join_clauses = NIL;
      root->full_join_clauses = NIL;
      root->join_info_list = NIL;
      root->placeholder_list = NIL;
      root->initial_rels = NIL;

       * Make a flattened version of the rangetable for faster access (this is
       * OK because the rangetable won't change any more).
      root->simple_rte_array = (RangeTblEntry **)
            palloc0(root->simple_rel_array_size * sizeof(RangeTblEntry *));
      rti = 1;
      foreach(lc, parse->rtable)
            RangeTblEntry *rte = (RangeTblEntry *) lfirst(lc);

            root->simple_rte_array[rti++] = rte;

       * Construct RelOptInfo nodes for all base relations in query, and
       * indirectly for all appendrel member relations ("other rels").  This
       * will give us a RelOptInfo for every "simple" (non-join) rel involved in
       * the query.
       * Note: the reason we find the rels by searching the jointree and
       * appendrel list, rather than just scanning the rangetable, is that the
       * rangetable may contain RTEs for rels not actively part of the query,
       * for example views.  We don't want to make RelOptInfos for them.
      add_base_rels_to_query(root, (Node *) parse->jointree);

       * We should now have size estimates for every actual table involved in
       * the query, so we can compute total_table_pages.    Note that appendrels
       * are not double-counted here, even though we don't bother to distinguish
       * RelOptInfos for appendrel parents, because the parents will still have
       * size zero.
       * XXX if a table is self-joined, we will count it once per appearance,
       * which perhaps is the wrong thing ... but that's not completely clear,
       * and detecting self-joins here is difficult, so ignore it for now.
      total_pages = 0;
      for (rti = 1; rti < root->simple_rel_array_size; rti++)
            RelOptInfo *brel = root->simple_rel_array[rti];

            if (brel == NULL)

            Assert(brel->relid == rti);         /* sanity check on array */

            total_pages += (double) brel->pages;
      root->total_table_pages = total_pages;

       * Examine the targetlist and join tree, adding entries to baserel
       * targetlists for all referenced Vars, and generating PlaceHolderInfo
       * entries for all referenced PlaceHolderVars.  Restrict and join clauses
       * are added to appropriate lists belonging to the mentioned relations.
       * We also build EquivalenceClasses for provably equivalent expressions.
       * The SpecialJoinInfo list is also built to hold information about join
       * order restrictions.  Finally, we form a target joinlist for
       * make_one_rel() to work from.
      build_base_rel_tlists(root, tlist);


      joinlist = deconstruct_jointree(root);

       * Reconsider any postponed outer-join quals now that we have built up
       * equivalence classes.  (This could result in further additions or
       * mergings of classes.)

       * If we formed any equivalence classes, generate additional restriction
       * clauses as appropriate.    (Implied join clauses are formed on-the-fly
       * later.)

       * We have completed merging equivalence sets, so it's now possible to
       * convert the requested query_pathkeys to canonical form.  Also
       * canonicalize the groupClause, windowClause, distinctClause and
       * sortClause pathkeys for use later.
      root->query_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->query_pathkeys);
      root->group_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->group_pathkeys);
      root->window_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->window_pathkeys);
      root->distinct_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->distinct_pathkeys);
      root->sort_pathkeys = canonicalize_pathkeys(root, root->sort_pathkeys);

       * Examine any "placeholder" expressions generated during subquery pullup.
       * Make sure that the Vars they need are marked as needed at the relevant
       * join level.

       * Ready to do the primary planning.
      final_rel = make_one_rel(root, joinlist);

      if (!final_rel || !final_rel->cheapest_total_path)
            elog(ERROR, "failed to construct the join relation");

       * If there's grouping going on, estimate the number of result groups. We
       * couldn't do this any earlier because it depends on relation size
       * estimates that were set up above.
       * Then convert tuple_fraction to fractional form if it is absolute, and
       * adjust it based on the knowledge that grouping_planner will be doing
       * grouping or aggregation work with our result.
       * This introduces some undesirable coupling between this code and
       * grouping_planner, but the alternatives seem even uglier; we couldn't
       * pass back completed paths without making these decisions here.
      if (parse->groupClause)
            List     *groupExprs;

            groupExprs = get_sortgrouplist_exprs(parse->groupClause,
            *num_groups = estimate_num_groups(root,

             * In GROUP BY mode, an absolute LIMIT is relative to the number of
             * groups not the number of tuples.  If the caller gave us a fraction,
             * keep it as-is.  (In both cases, we are effectively assuming that
             * all the groups are about the same size.)
            if (tuple_fraction >= 1.0)
                  tuple_fraction /= *num_groups;

             * If both GROUP BY and ORDER BY are specified, we will need two
             * levels of sort --- and, therefore, certainly need to read all the
             * tuples --- unless ORDER BY is a subset of GROUP BY.      Likewise if we
             * have both DISTINCT and GROUP BY, or if we have a window
             * specification not compatible with the GROUP BY.
            if (!pathkeys_contained_in(root->sort_pathkeys, root->group_pathkeys) ||
                  !pathkeys_contained_in(root->distinct_pathkeys, root->group_pathkeys) ||
             !pathkeys_contained_in(root->window_pathkeys, root->group_pathkeys))
                  tuple_fraction = 0.0;
      else if (parse->hasAggs || root->hasHavingQual)
             * Ungrouped aggregate will certainly want to read all the tuples, and
             * it will deliver a single result row (so leave *num_groups 1).
            tuple_fraction = 0.0;
      else if (parse->distinctClause)
             * Since there was no grouping or aggregation, it's reasonable to
             * assume the UNIQUE filter has effects comparable to GROUP BY. Return
             * the estimated number of output rows for use by caller. (If DISTINCT
             * is used with grouping, we ignore its effects for rowcount
             * estimation purposes; this amounts to assuming the grouped rows are
             * distinct already.)
            List     *distinctExprs;

            distinctExprs = get_sortgrouplist_exprs(parse->distinctClause,
            *num_groups = estimate_num_groups(root,

             * Adjust tuple_fraction the same way as for GROUP BY, too.
            if (tuple_fraction >= 1.0)
                  tuple_fraction /= *num_groups;
             * Plain non-grouped, non-aggregated query: an absolute tuple fraction
             * can be divided by the number of tuples.
            if (tuple_fraction >= 1.0)
                  tuple_fraction /= final_rel->rows;

       * Pick out the cheapest-total path and the cheapest presorted path for
       * the requested pathkeys (if there is one).  We should take the tuple
       * fraction into account when selecting the cheapest presorted path, but
       * not when selecting the cheapest-total path, since if we have to sort
       * then we'll have to fetch all the tuples.  (But there's a special case:
       * if query_pathkeys is NIL, meaning order doesn't matter, then the
       * "cheapest presorted" path will be the cheapest overall for the tuple
       * fraction.)
       * The cheapest-total path is also the one to use if grouping_planner
       * decides to use hashed aggregation, so we return it separately even if
       * this routine thinks the presorted path is the winner.
      cheapestpath = final_rel->cheapest_total_path;

      sortedpath =

      /* Don't return same path in both guises; just wastes effort */
      if (sortedpath == cheapestpath)
            sortedpath = NULL;

       * Forget about the presorted path if it would be cheaper to sort the
       * cheapest-total path.  Here we need consider only the behavior at the
       * tuple fraction point.
      if (sortedpath)
            Path        sort_path;  /* dummy for result of cost_sort */

            if (root->query_pathkeys == NIL ||
                  /* No sort needed for cheapest path */
                  sort_path.startup_cost = cheapestpath->startup_cost;
                  sort_path.total_cost = cheapestpath->total_cost;
                  /* Figure cost for sorting */
                  cost_sort(&sort_path, root, root->query_pathkeys,
                                final_rel->rows, final_rel->width,

            if (compare_fractional_path_costs(sortedpath, &sort_path,
                                                              tuple_fraction) > 0)
                  /* Presorted path is a loser */
                  sortedpath = NULL;

      *cheapest_path = cheapestpath;
      *sorted_path = sortedpath;

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