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int8.c
/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * int8.c
 *      Internal 64-bit integer operations
 *
 * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2009, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
 * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
 *
 * IDENTIFICATION
 *      $PostgreSQL: pgsql/src/backend/utils/adt/int8.c,v 1.74.2.1 2009/09/03 18:48:21 tgl Exp $
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
#include "postgres.h"

#include <ctype.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <math.h>

#include "funcapi.h"
#include "libpq/pqformat.h"
#include "nodes/nodes.h"
#include "utils/int8.h"


#define MAXINT8LEN            25

#define SAMESIGN(a,b)   (((a) < 0) == ((b) < 0))

typedef struct
{
      int64       current;
      int64       finish;
      int64       step;
} generate_series_fctx;


/***********************************************************************
 **
 **         Routines for 64-bit integers.
 **
 ***********************************************************************/

/*----------------------------------------------------------
 * Formatting and conversion routines.
 *---------------------------------------------------------*/

/*
 * scanint8 --- try to parse a string into an int8.
 *
 * If errorOK is false, ereport a useful error message if the string is bad.
 * If errorOK is true, just return "false" for bad input.
 */
bool
scanint8(const char *str, bool errorOK, int64 *result)
{
      const char *ptr = str;
      int64       tmp = 0;
      int               sign = 1;

      /*
       * Do our own scan, rather than relying on sscanf which might be broken
       * for long long.
       */

      /* skip leading spaces */
      while (*ptr && isspace((unsigned char) *ptr))
            ptr++;

      /* handle sign */
      if (*ptr == '-')
      {
            ptr++;

            /*
             * Do an explicit check for INT64_MIN.    Ugly though this is, it's
             * cleaner than trying to get the loop below to handle it portably.
             */
#ifndef INT64_IS_BUSTED
            if (strncmp(ptr, "9223372036854775808", 19) == 0)
            {
                  tmp = -INT64CONST(0x7fffffffffffffff) - 1;
                  ptr += 19;
                  goto gotdigits;
            }
#endif

            sign = -1;
      }
      else if (*ptr == '+')
            ptr++;

      /* require at least one digit */
      if (!isdigit((unsigned char) *ptr))
      {
            if (errorOK)
                  return false;
            else
                  ereport(ERROR,
                              (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TEXT_REPRESENTATION),
                               errmsg("invalid input syntax for integer: \"%s\"",
                                          str)));
      }

      /* process digits */
      while (*ptr && isdigit((unsigned char) *ptr))
      {
            int64       newtmp = tmp * 10 + (*ptr++ - '0');

            if ((newtmp / 10) != tmp)           /* overflow? */
            {
                  if (errorOK)
                        return false;
                  else
                        ereport(ERROR,
                                    (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                                 errmsg("value \"%s\" is out of range for type bigint",
                                            str)));
            }
            tmp = newtmp;
      }

gotdigits:

      /* allow trailing whitespace, but not other trailing chars */
      while (*ptr != '\0' && isspace((unsigned char) *ptr))
            ptr++;

      if (*ptr != '\0')
      {
            if (errorOK)
                  return false;
            else
                  ereport(ERROR,
                              (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_TEXT_REPRESENTATION),
                               errmsg("invalid input syntax for integer: \"%s\"",
                                          str)));
      }

      *result = (sign < 0) ? -tmp : tmp;

      return true;
}

/* int8in()
 */
Datum
int8in(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      char     *str = PG_GETARG_CSTRING(0);
      int64       result;

      (void) scanint8(str, false, &result);
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}


/* int8out()
 */
Datum
int8out(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      char     *result;
      int               len;
      char        buf[MAXINT8LEN + 1];

      if ((len = snprintf(buf, MAXINT8LEN, INT64_FORMAT, val)) < 0)
            elog(ERROR, "could not format int8");

      result = pstrdup(buf);
      PG_RETURN_CSTRING(result);
}

/*
 *          int8recv                - converts external binary format to int8
 */
Datum
int8recv(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      StringInfo  buf = (StringInfo) PG_GETARG_POINTER(0);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(pq_getmsgint64(buf));
}

/*
 *          int8send                - converts int8 to binary format
 */
Datum
int8send(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      StringInfoData buf;

      pq_begintypsend(&buf);
      pq_sendint64(&buf, arg1);
      PG_RETURN_BYTEA_P(pq_endtypsend(&buf));
}


/*----------------------------------------------------------
 *    Relational operators for int8s, including cross-data-type comparisons.
 *---------------------------------------------------------*/

/* int8relop()
 * Is val1 relop val2?
 */
Datum
int8eq(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 == val2);
}

Datum
int8ne(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 != val2);
}

Datum
int8lt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 < val2);
}

Datum
int8gt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 > val2);
}

Datum
int8le(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 <= val2);
}

Datum
int8ge(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 >= val2);
}

/* int84relop()
 * Is 64-bit val1 relop 32-bit val2?
 */
Datum
int84eq(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 == val2);
}

Datum
int84ne(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 != val2);
}

Datum
int84lt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 < val2);
}

Datum
int84gt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 > val2);
}

Datum
int84le(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 <= val2);
}

Datum
int84ge(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 >= val2);
}

/* int48relop()
 * Is 32-bit val1 relop 64-bit val2?
 */
Datum
int48eq(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 == val2);
}

Datum
int48ne(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 != val2);
}

Datum
int48lt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 < val2);
}

Datum
int48gt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 > val2);
}

Datum
int48le(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 <= val2);
}

Datum
int48ge(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 >= val2);
}

/* int82relop()
 * Is 64-bit val1 relop 16-bit val2?
 */
Datum
int82eq(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 == val2);
}

Datum
int82ne(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 != val2);
}

Datum
int82lt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 < val2);
}

Datum
int82gt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 > val2);
}

Datum
int82le(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 <= val2);
}

Datum
int82ge(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 >= val2);
}

/* int28relop()
 * Is 16-bit val1 relop 64-bit val2?
 */
Datum
int28eq(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 == val2);
}

Datum
int28ne(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 != val2);
}

Datum
int28lt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 < val2);
}

Datum
int28gt(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 > val2);
}

Datum
int28le(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 <= val2);
}

Datum
int28ge(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       val1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       val2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_BOOL(val1 >= val2);
}


/*----------------------------------------------------------
 *    Arithmetic operators on 64-bit integers.
 *---------------------------------------------------------*/

Datum
int8um(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       result;

      result = -arg;
      /* overflow check (needed for INT64_MIN) */
      if (arg != 0 && SAMESIGN(result, arg))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int8up(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(arg);
}

Datum
int8pl(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 + arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of different signs then their sum
       * cannot overflow.  If the inputs are of the same sign, their sum had
       * better be that sign too.
       */
      if (SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int8mi(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 - arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of the same sign then their
       * difference cannot overflow.      If they are of different signs then the
       * result should be of the same sign as the first input.
       */
      if (!SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int8mul(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 * arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      We basically check to see if result / arg2 gives arg1
       * again.  There are two cases where this fails: arg2 = 0 (which cannot
       * overflow) and arg1 = INT64_MIN, arg2 = -1 (where the division itself
       * will overflow and thus incorrectly match).
       *
       * Since the division is likely much more expensive than the actual
       * multiplication, we'd like to skip it where possible.  The best bang for
       * the buck seems to be to check whether both inputs are in the int32
       * range; if so, no overflow is possible.  (But that only works if we
       * really have a 64-bit int64 datatype...)
       */
#ifndef INT64_IS_BUSTED
      if (arg1 != (int64) ((int32) arg1) || arg2 != (int64) ((int32) arg2))
#endif
      {
            if (arg2 != 0 &&
                  (result / arg2 != arg1 || (arg2 == -1 && arg1 < 0 && result < 0)))
                  ereport(ERROR,
                              (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                               errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      }
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int8div(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      if (arg2 == 0)
      {
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_DIVISION_BY_ZERO),
                         errmsg("division by zero")));
            /* ensure compiler realizes we mustn't reach the division (gcc bug) */
            PG_RETURN_NULL();
      }

      result = arg1 / arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      The only possible overflow case is for arg1 =
       * INT64_MIN, arg2 = -1, where the correct result is -INT64_MIN, which
       * can't be represented on a two's-complement machine.      Most machines
       * produce INT64_MIN but it seems some produce zero.
       */
      if (arg2 == -1 && arg1 < 0 && result <= 0)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

/* int8abs()
 * Absolute value
 */
Datum
int8abs(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       result;

      result = (arg1 < 0) ? -arg1 : arg1;
      /* overflow check (needed for INT64_MIN) */
      if (result < 0)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

/* int8mod()
 * Modulo operation.
 */
Datum
int8mod(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      if (arg2 == 0)
      {
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_DIVISION_BY_ZERO),
                         errmsg("division by zero")));
            /* ensure compiler realizes we mustn't reach the division (gcc bug) */
            PG_RETURN_NULL();
      }

      /* No overflow is possible */

      PG_RETURN_INT64(arg1 % arg2);
}


Datum
int8inc(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      /*
       * When int8 is pass-by-reference, we provide this special case to avoid
       * palloc overhead for COUNT(): when called from nodeAgg, we know that the
       * argument is modifiable local storage, so just update it in-place. (If
       * int8 is pass-by-value, then of course this is useless as well as
       * incorrect, so just ifdef it out.)
       */
#ifndef USE_FLOAT8_BYVAL            /* controls int8 too */
      if (fcinfo->context &&
            (IsA(fcinfo->context, AggState) ||
             IsA(fcinfo->context, WindowAggState)))
      {
            int64    *arg = (int64 *) PG_GETARG_POINTER(0);
            int64       result;

            result = *arg + 1;
            /* Overflow check */
            if (result < 0 && *arg > 0)
                  ereport(ERROR,
                              (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                               errmsg("bigint out of range")));

            *arg = result;
            PG_RETURN_POINTER(arg);
      }
      else
#endif
      {
            /* Not called by nodeAgg, so just do it the dumb way */
            int64       arg = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
            int64       result;

            result = arg + 1;
            /* Overflow check */
            if (result < 0 && arg > 0)
                  ereport(ERROR,
                              (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                               errmsg("bigint out of range")));

            PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
      }
}

/*
 * These functions are exactly like int8inc but are used for aggregates that
 * count only non-null values.      Since the functions are declared strict,
 * the null checks happen before we ever get here, and all we need do is
 * increment the state value.  We could actually make these pg_proc entries
 * point right at int8inc, but then the opr_sanity regression test would
 * complain about mismatched entries for a built-in function.
 */

Datum
int8inc_any(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      return int8inc(fcinfo);
}

Datum
int8inc_float8_float8(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      return int8inc(fcinfo);
}


Datum
int8larger(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = ((arg1 > arg2) ? arg1 : arg2);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int8smaller(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = ((arg1 < arg2) ? arg1 : arg2);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int84pl(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 + arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of different signs then their sum
       * cannot overflow.  If the inputs are of the same sign, their sum had
       * better be that sign too.
       */
      if (SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int84mi(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 - arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of the same sign then their
       * difference cannot overflow.      If they are of different signs then the
       * result should be of the same sign as the first input.
       */
      if (!SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int84mul(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 * arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      We basically check to see if result / arg1 gives arg2
       * again.  There is one case where this fails: arg1 = 0 (which cannot
       * overflow).
       *
       * Since the division is likely much more expensive than the actual
       * multiplication, we'd like to skip it where possible.  The best bang for
       * the buck seems to be to check whether both inputs are in the int32
       * range; if so, no overflow is possible.
       */
      if (arg1 != (int64) ((int32) arg1) &&
            result / arg1 != arg2)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int84div(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);
      int64       result;

      if (arg2 == 0)
      {
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_DIVISION_BY_ZERO),
                         errmsg("division by zero")));
            /* ensure compiler realizes we mustn't reach the division (gcc bug) */
            PG_RETURN_NULL();
      }

      result = arg1 / arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      The only possible overflow case is for arg1 =
       * INT64_MIN, arg2 = -1, where the correct result is -INT64_MIN, which
       * can't be represented on a two's-complement machine.      Most machines
       * produce INT64_MIN but it seems some produce zero.
       */
      if (arg2 == -1 && arg1 < 0 && result <= 0)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int48pl(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 + arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of different signs then their sum
       * cannot overflow.  If the inputs are of the same sign, their sum had
       * better be that sign too.
       */
      if (SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int48mi(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 - arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of the same sign then their
       * difference cannot overflow.      If they are of different signs then the
       * result should be of the same sign as the first input.
       */
      if (!SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int48mul(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 * arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      We basically check to see if result / arg2 gives arg1
       * again.  There is one case where this fails: arg2 = 0 (which cannot
       * overflow).
       *
       * Since the division is likely much more expensive than the actual
       * multiplication, we'd like to skip it where possible.  The best bang for
       * the buck seems to be to check whether both inputs are in the int32
       * range; if so, no overflow is possible.
       */
      if (arg2 != (int64) ((int32) arg2) &&
            result / arg2 != arg1)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int48div(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      if (arg2 == 0)
      {
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_DIVISION_BY_ZERO),
                         errmsg("division by zero")));
            /* ensure compiler realizes we mustn't reach the division (gcc bug) */
            PG_RETURN_NULL();
      }

      /* No overflow is possible */
      PG_RETURN_INT64((int64) arg1 / arg2);
}

Datum
int82pl(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 + arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of different signs then their sum
       * cannot overflow.  If the inputs are of the same sign, their sum had
       * better be that sign too.
       */
      if (SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int82mi(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 - arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of the same sign then their
       * difference cannot overflow.      If they are of different signs then the
       * result should be of the same sign as the first input.
       */
      if (!SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int82mul(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 * arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      We basically check to see if result / arg1 gives arg2
       * again.  There is one case where this fails: arg1 = 0 (which cannot
       * overflow).
       *
       * Since the division is likely much more expensive than the actual
       * multiplication, we'd like to skip it where possible.  The best bang for
       * the buck seems to be to check whether both inputs are in the int32
       * range; if so, no overflow is possible.
       */
      if (arg1 != (int64) ((int32) arg1) &&
            result / arg1 != arg2)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int82div(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT16(1);
      int64       result;

      if (arg2 == 0)
      {
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_DIVISION_BY_ZERO),
                         errmsg("division by zero")));
            /* ensure compiler realizes we mustn't reach the division (gcc bug) */
            PG_RETURN_NULL();
      }

      result = arg1 / arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      The only possible overflow case is for arg1 =
       * INT64_MIN, arg2 = -1, where the correct result is -INT64_MIN, which
       * can't be represented on a two's-complement machine.      Most machines
       * produce INT64_MIN but it seems some produce zero.
       */
      if (arg2 == -1 && arg1 < 0 && result <= 0)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int28pl(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 + arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of different signs then their sum
       * cannot overflow.  If the inputs are of the same sign, their sum had
       * better be that sign too.
       */
      if (SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int28mi(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 - arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      If the inputs are of the same sign then their
       * difference cannot overflow.      If they are of different signs then the
       * result should be of the same sign as the first input.
       */
      if (!SAMESIGN(arg1, arg2) && !SAMESIGN(result, arg1))
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int28mul(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
      int64       result;

      result = arg1 * arg2;

      /*
       * Overflow check.      We basically check to see if result / arg2 gives arg1
       * again.  There is one case where this fails: arg2 = 0 (which cannot
       * overflow).
       *
       * Since the division is likely much more expensive than the actual
       * multiplication, we'd like to skip it where possible.  The best bang for
       * the buck seems to be to check whether both inputs are in the int32
       * range; if so, no overflow is possible.
       */
      if (arg2 != (int64) ((int32) arg2) &&
            result / arg2 != arg1)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));
      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
int28div(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      if (arg2 == 0)
      {
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_DIVISION_BY_ZERO),
                         errmsg("division by zero")));
            /* ensure compiler realizes we mustn't reach the division (gcc bug) */
            PG_RETURN_NULL();
      }

      /* No overflow is possible */
      PG_RETURN_INT64((int64) arg1 / arg2);
}

/* Binary arithmetics
 *
 *          int8and           - returns arg1 & arg2
 *          int8or            - returns arg1 | arg2
 *          int8xor           - returns arg1 # arg2
 *          int8not           - returns ~arg1
 *          int8shl           - returns arg1 << arg2
 *          int8shr           - returns arg1 >> arg2
 */

Datum
int8and(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(arg1 & arg2);
}

Datum
int8or(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(arg1 | arg2);
}

Datum
int8xor(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int64       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(arg1 ^ arg2);
}

Datum
int8not(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(~arg1);
}

Datum
int8shl(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(arg1 << arg2);
}

Datum
int8shr(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg1 = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       arg2 = PG_GETARG_INT32(1);

      PG_RETURN_INT64(arg1 >> arg2);
}

/*----------------------------------------------------------
 *    Conversion operators.
 *---------------------------------------------------------*/

Datum
int48(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int32       arg = PG_GETARG_INT32(0);

      PG_RETURN_INT64((int64) arg);
}

Datum
int84(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int32       result;

      result = (int32) arg;

      /* Test for overflow by reverse-conversion. */
      if ((int64) result != arg)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("integer out of range")));

      PG_RETURN_INT32(result);
}

Datum
int28(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int16       arg = PG_GETARG_INT16(0);

      PG_RETURN_INT64((int64) arg);
}

Datum
int82(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      int16       result;

      result = (int16) arg;

      /* Test for overflow by reverse-conversion. */
      if ((int64) result != arg)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("smallint out of range")));

      PG_RETURN_INT16(result);
}

Datum
i8tod(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      float8            result;

      result = arg;

      PG_RETURN_FLOAT8(result);
}

/* dtoi8()
 * Convert float8 to 8-byte integer.
 */
Datum
dtoi8(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      float8            arg = PG_GETARG_FLOAT8(0);
      int64       result;

      /* Round arg to nearest integer (but it's still in float form) */
      arg = rint(arg);

      /*
       * Does it fit in an int64?  Avoid assuming that we have handy constants
       * defined for the range boundaries, instead test for overflow by
       * reverse-conversion.
       */
      result = (int64) arg;

      if ((float8) result != arg)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));

      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
i8tof(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      float4            result;

      result = arg;

      PG_RETURN_FLOAT4(result);
}

/* ftoi8()
 * Convert float4 to 8-byte integer.
 */
Datum
ftoi8(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      float4            arg = PG_GETARG_FLOAT4(0);
      int64       result;
      float8            darg;

      /* Round arg to nearest integer (but it's still in float form) */
      darg = rint(arg);

      /*
       * Does it fit in an int64?  Avoid assuming that we have handy constants
       * defined for the range boundaries, instead test for overflow by
       * reverse-conversion.
       */
      result = (int64) darg;

      if ((float8) result != darg)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("bigint out of range")));

      PG_RETURN_INT64(result);
}

Datum
i8tooid(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      int64       arg = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
      Oid               result;

      result = (Oid) arg;

      /* Test for overflow by reverse-conversion. */
      if ((int64) result != arg)
            ereport(ERROR,
                        (errcode(ERRCODE_NUMERIC_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE),
                         errmsg("OID out of range")));

      PG_RETURN_OID(result);
}

Datum
oidtoi8(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      Oid               arg = PG_GETARG_OID(0);

      PG_RETURN_INT64((int64) arg);
}

/*
 * non-persistent numeric series generator
 */
Datum
generate_series_int8(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      return generate_series_step_int8(fcinfo);
}

Datum
generate_series_step_int8(PG_FUNCTION_ARGS)
{
      FuncCallContext *funcctx;
      generate_series_fctx *fctx;
      int64       result;
      MemoryContext oldcontext;

      /* stuff done only on the first call of the function */
      if (SRF_IS_FIRSTCALL())
      {
            int64       start = PG_GETARG_INT64(0);
            int64       finish = PG_GETARG_INT64(1);
            int64       step = 1;

            /* see if we were given an explicit step size */
            if (PG_NARGS() == 3)
                  step = PG_GETARG_INT64(2);
            if (step == 0)
                  ereport(ERROR,
                              (errcode(ERRCODE_INVALID_PARAMETER_VALUE),
                               errmsg("step size cannot equal zero")));

            /* create a function context for cross-call persistence */
            funcctx = SRF_FIRSTCALL_INIT();

            /*
             * switch to memory context appropriate for multiple function calls
             */
            oldcontext = MemoryContextSwitchTo(funcctx->multi_call_memory_ctx);

            /* allocate memory for user context */
            fctx = (generate_series_fctx *) palloc(sizeof(generate_series_fctx));

            /*
             * Use fctx to keep state from call to call. Seed current with the
             * original start value
             */
            fctx->current = start;
            fctx->finish = finish;
            fctx->step = step;

            funcctx->user_fctx = fctx;
            MemoryContextSwitchTo(oldcontext);
      }

      /* stuff done on every call of the function */
      funcctx = SRF_PERCALL_SETUP();

      /*
       * get the saved state and use current as the result for this iteration
       */
      fctx = funcctx->user_fctx;
      result = fctx->current;

      if ((fctx->step > 0 && fctx->current <= fctx->finish) ||
            (fctx->step < 0 && fctx->current >= fctx->finish))
      {
            /* increment current in preparation for next iteration */
            fctx->current += fctx->step;

            /* if next-value computation overflows, this is the final result */
            if (SAMESIGN(result, fctx->step) && !SAMESIGN(result, fctx->current))
                  fctx->step = 0;

            /* do when there is more left to send */
            SRF_RETURN_NEXT(funcctx, Int64GetDatum(result));
      }
      else
            /* do when there is no more left */
            SRF_RETURN_DONE(funcctx);
}

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