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syncscan.c
/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * syncscan.c
 *      heap scan synchronization support
 *
 * When multiple backends run a sequential scan on the same table, we try
 * to keep them synchronized to reduce the overall I/O needed.    The goal is
 * to read each page into shared buffer cache only once, and let all backends
 * that take part in the shared scan process the page before it falls out of
 * the cache.
 *
 * Since the "leader" in a pack of backends doing a seqscan will have to wait
 * for I/O, while the "followers" don't, there is a strong self-synchronizing
 * effect once we can get the backends examining approximately the same part
 * of the table at the same time.  Hence all that is really needed is to get
 * a new backend beginning a seqscan to begin it close to where other backends
 * are reading.  We can scan the table circularly, from block X up to the
 * end and then from block 0 to X-1, to ensure we visit all rows while still
 * participating in the common scan.
 *
 * To accomplish that, we keep track of the scan position of each table, and
 * start new scans close to where the previous scan(s) are.  We don't try to
 * do any extra synchronization to keep the scans together afterwards; some
 * scans might progress much more slowly than others, for example if the
 * results need to be transferred to the client over a slow network, and we
 * don't want such queries to slow down others.
 *
 * There can realistically only be a few large sequential scans on different
 * tables in progress at any time.  Therefore we just keep the scan positions
 * in a small LRU list which we scan every time we need to look up or update a
 * scan position.  The whole mechanism is only applied for tables exceeding
 * a threshold size (but that is not the concern of this module).
 *
 * INTERFACE ROUTINES
 *          ss_get_location         - return current scan location of a relation
 *          ss_report_location      - update current scan location
 *
 *
 * Portions Copyright (c) 1996-2009, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
 * Portions Copyright (c) 1994, Regents of the University of California
 *
 * IDENTIFICATION
 *      $PostgreSQL: pgsql/src/backend/access/heap/syncscan.c,v 1.6 2009/01/01 17:23:35 momjian Exp $
 *
 *-------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */
#include "postgres.h"

#include "access/heapam.h"
#include "miscadmin.h"
#include "storage/block.h"
#include "storage/relfilenode.h"
#include "utils/rel.h"


/* GUC variables */
#ifdef TRACE_SYNCSCAN
bool        trace_syncscan = false;
#endif


/*
 * Size of the LRU list.
 *
 * Note: the code assumes that SYNC_SCAN_NELEM > 1.
 *
 * XXX: What's a good value? It should be large enough to hold the
 * maximum number of large tables scanned simultaneously.  But a larger value
 * means more traversing of the LRU list when starting a new scan.
 */
#define SYNC_SCAN_NELEM 20

/*
 * Interval between reports of the location of the current scan, in pages.
 *
 * Note: This should be smaller than the ring size (see buffer/freelist.c)
 * we use for bulk reads.  Otherwise a scan joining other scans might start
 * from a page that's no longer in the buffer cache.  This is a bit fuzzy;
 * there's no guarantee that the new scan will read the page before it leaves
 * the buffer cache anyway, and on the other hand the page is most likely
 * still in the OS cache.
 */
#define SYNC_SCAN_REPORT_INTERVAL (128 * 1024 / BLCKSZ)


/*
 * The scan locations structure is essentially a doubly-linked LRU with head
 * and tail pointer, but designed to hold a fixed maximum number of elements in
 * fixed-size shared memory.
 */
00091 typedef struct ss_scan_location_t
{
      RelFileNode relfilenode;      /* identity of a relation */
      BlockNumber location;         /* last-reported location in the relation */
} ss_scan_location_t;

00097 typedef struct ss_lru_item_t
{
      struct ss_lru_item_t *prev;
      struct ss_lru_item_t *next;
      ss_scan_location_t location;
} ss_lru_item_t;

00104 typedef struct ss_scan_locations_t
{
      ss_lru_item_t *head;
      ss_lru_item_t *tail;
      ss_lru_item_t items[1];       /* SYNC_SCAN_NELEM items */
} ss_scan_locations_t;

#define SizeOfScanLocations(N) offsetof(ss_scan_locations_t, items[N])

/* Pointer to struct in shared memory */
static ss_scan_locations_t *scan_locations;

/* prototypes for internal functions */
static BlockNumber ss_search(RelFileNode relfilenode,
              BlockNumber location, bool set);


/*
 * SyncScanShmemSize --- report amount of shared memory space needed
 */
Size
SyncScanShmemSize(void)
{
      return SizeOfScanLocations(SYNC_SCAN_NELEM);
}

/*
 * SyncScanShmemInit --- initialize this module's shared memory
 */
void
SyncScanShmemInit(void)
{
      int               i;
      bool        found;

      scan_locations = (ss_scan_locations_t *)
            ShmemInitStruct("Sync Scan Locations List",
                                    SizeOfScanLocations(SYNC_SCAN_NELEM),
                                    &found);

      if (!IsUnderPostmaster)
      {
            /* Initialize shared memory area */
            Assert(!found);

            scan_locations->head = &scan_locations->items[0];
            scan_locations->tail = &scan_locations->items[SYNC_SCAN_NELEM - 1];

            for (i = 0; i < SYNC_SCAN_NELEM; i++)
            {
                  ss_lru_item_t *item = &scan_locations->items[i];

                  /*
                   * Initialize all slots with invalid values. As scans are started,
                   * these invalid entries will fall off the LRU list and get
                   * replaced with real entries.
                   */
                  item->location.relfilenode.spcNode = InvalidOid;
                  item->location.relfilenode.dbNode = InvalidOid;
                  item->location.relfilenode.relNode = InvalidOid;
                  item->location.location = InvalidBlockNumber;

                  item->prev = (i > 0) ?
                        (&scan_locations->items[i - 1]) : NULL;
                  item->next = (i < SYNC_SCAN_NELEM - 1) ?
                        (&scan_locations->items[i + 1]) : NULL;
            }
      }
      else
            Assert(found);
}

/*
 * ss_search --- search the scan_locations structure for an entry with the
 *          given relfilenode.
 *
 * If "set" is true, the location is updated to the given location.  If no
 * entry for the given relfilenode is found, it will be created at the head
 * of the list with the given location, even if "set" is false.
 *
 * In any case, the location after possible update is returned.
 *
 * Caller is responsible for having acquired suitable lock on the shared
 * data structure.
 */
static BlockNumber
ss_search(RelFileNode relfilenode, BlockNumber location, bool set)
{
      ss_lru_item_t *item;

      item = scan_locations->head;
      for (;;)
      {
            bool        match;

            match = RelFileNodeEquals(item->location.relfilenode, relfilenode);

            if (match || item->next == NULL)
            {
                  /*
                   * If we reached the end of list and no match was found, take over
                   * the last entry
                   */
                  if (!match)
                  {
                        item->location.relfilenode = relfilenode;
                        item->location.location = location;
                  }
                  else if (set)
                        item->location.location = location;

                  /* Move the entry to the front of the LRU list */
                  if (item != scan_locations->head)
                  {
                        /* unlink */
                        if (item == scan_locations->tail)
                              scan_locations->tail = item->prev;
                        item->prev->next = item->next;
                        if (item->next)
                              item->next->prev = item->prev;

                        /* link */
                        item->prev = NULL;
                        item->next = scan_locations->head;
                        scan_locations->head->prev = item;
                        scan_locations->head = item;
                  }

                  return item->location.location;
            }

            item = item->next;
      }

      /* not reached */
}

/*
 * ss_get_location --- get the optimal starting location for scan
 *
 * Returns the last-reported location of a sequential scan on the
 * relation, or 0 if no valid location is found.
 *
 * We expect the caller has just done RelationGetNumberOfBlocks(), and
 * so that number is passed in rather than computing it again.    The result
 * is guaranteed less than relnblocks (assuming that's > 0).
 */
BlockNumber
ss_get_location(Relation rel, BlockNumber relnblocks)
{
      BlockNumber startloc;

      LWLockAcquire(SyncScanLock, LW_EXCLUSIVE);
      startloc = ss_search(rel->rd_node, 0, false);
      LWLockRelease(SyncScanLock);

      /*
       * If the location is not a valid block number for this scan, start at 0.
       *
       * This can happen if for instance a VACUUM truncated the table since the
       * location was saved.
       */
      if (startloc >= relnblocks)
            startloc = 0;

#ifdef TRACE_SYNCSCAN
      if (trace_syncscan)
            elog(LOG,
                   "SYNC_SCAN: start \"%s\" (size %u) at %u",
                   RelationGetRelationName(rel), relnblocks, startloc);
#endif

      return startloc;
}

/*
 * ss_report_location --- update the current scan location
 *
 * Writes an entry into the shared Sync Scan state of the form
 * (relfilenode, blocknumber), overwriting any existing entry for the
 * same relfilenode.
 */
void
ss_report_location(Relation rel, BlockNumber location)
{
#ifdef TRACE_SYNCSCAN
      if (trace_syncscan)
      {
            if ((location % 1024) == 0)
                  elog(LOG,
                         "SYNC_SCAN: scanning \"%s\" at %u",
                         RelationGetRelationName(rel), location);
      }
#endif

      /*
       * To reduce lock contention, only report scan progress every N pages. For
       * the same reason, don't block if the lock isn't immediately available.
       * Missing a few updates isn't critical, it just means that a new scan
       * that wants to join the pack will start a little bit behind the head of
       * the scan.  Hopefully the pages are still in OS cache and the scan
       * catches up quickly.
       */
      if ((location % SYNC_SCAN_REPORT_INTERVAL) == 0)
      {
            if (LWLockConditionalAcquire(SyncScanLock, LW_EXCLUSIVE))
            {
                  (void) ss_search(rel->rd_node, location, true);
                  LWLockRelease(SyncScanLock);
            }
#ifdef TRACE_SYNCSCAN
            else if (trace_syncscan)
                  elog(LOG,
                         "SYNC_SCAN: missed update for \"%s\" at %u",
                         RelationGetRelationName(rel), location);
#endif
      }
}

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