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Sourcecode: postgresql-8.4 version File versions

describe.c

/*
 * psql - the PostgreSQL interactive terminal
 *
 * Support for the various \d ("describe") commands.  Note that the current
 * expectation is that all functions in this file will succeed when working
 * with servers of versions 7.4 and up.  It's okay to omit irrelevant
 * information for an old server, but not to fail outright.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 2000-2009, PostgreSQL Global Development Group
 *
 * $PostgreSQL: pgsql/src/bin/psql/describe.c,v 1.218 2009/06/13 13:43:34 petere Exp $
 */
#include "postgres_fe.h"

#include <ctype.h>

#include "common.h"
#include "describe.h"
#include "dumputils.h"
#include "mbprint.h"
#include "print.h"
#include "settings.h"
#include "variables.h"


static bool describeOneTableDetails(const char *schemaname,
                                    const char *relationname,
                                    const char *oid,
                                    bool verbose);
static void add_tablespace_footer(printTableContent *const cont, char relkind,
                                Oid tablespace, const bool newline);
static void add_role_attribute(PQExpBuffer buf, const char *const str);
static bool listTSParsersVerbose(const char *pattern);
static bool describeOneTSParser(const char *oid, const char *nspname,
                              const char *prsname);
static bool listTSConfigsVerbose(const char *pattern);
static bool describeOneTSConfig(const char *oid, const char *nspname,
                              const char *cfgname,
                              const char *pnspname, const char *prsname);
static void printACLColumn(PQExpBuffer buf, const char *colname);


/*----------------
 * Handlers for various slash commands displaying some sort of list
 * of things in the database.
 *
 * Note: try to format the queries to look nice in -E output.
 *----------------
 */


/* \da
 * Takes an optional regexp to select particular aggregates
 */
bool
describeAggregates(const char *pattern, bool verbose, bool showSystem)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  p.proname AS \"%s\",\n"
                         "  pg_catalog.format_type(p.prorettype, NULL) AS \"%s\",\n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Result data type"));

      if (pset.sversion >= 80200)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "  CASE WHEN p.pronargs = 0\n"
                                      "    THEN CAST('*' AS pg_catalog.text)\n"
                                      "    ELSE\n"
                                      "    pg_catalog.array_to_string(ARRAY(\n"
                                      "      SELECT\n"
                         "        pg_catalog.format_type(p.proargtypes[s.i], NULL)\n"
                                      "      FROM\n"
                                      "        pg_catalog.generate_series(0, pg_catalog.array_upper(p.proargtypes, 1)) AS s(i)\n"
                                      "    ), ', ')\n"
                                      "  END AS \"%s\",\n",
                                      gettext_noop("Argument data types"));
      else
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                   "  pg_catalog.format_type(p.proargtypes[0], NULL) AS \"%s\",\n",
                                      gettext_noop("Argument data types"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                         "  pg_catalog.obj_description(p.oid, 'pg_proc') as \"%s\"\n"
                                "FROM pg_catalog.pg_proc p\n"
         "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = p.pronamespace\n"
                                "WHERE p.proisagg\n",
                                gettext_noop("Description"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "p.proname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_function_is_visible(p.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2, 4;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of aggregate functions");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

/* \db
 * Takes an optional regexp to select particular tablespaces
 */
bool
describeTablespaces(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      if (pset.sversion < 80000)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("The server (version %d.%d) does not support tablespaces.\n"),
                        pset.sversion / 10000, (pset.sversion / 100) % 100);
            return true;
      }

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT spcname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  pg_catalog.pg_get_userbyid(spcowner) AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  spclocation AS \"%s\"",
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Owner"),
                                gettext_noop("Location"));

      if (verbose)
      {
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ",\n  ");
            printACLColumn(&buf, "spcacl");
      }

      if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80200)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
             ",\n  pg_catalog.shobj_description(oid, 'pg_tablespace') AS \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Description"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_tablespace\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                      NULL, "spcname", NULL,
                                      NULL);

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of tablespaces");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/* \df
 * Takes an optional regexp to select particular functions.
 *
 * As with \d, you can specify the kinds of functions you want:
 *
 * a for aggregates
 * n for normal
 * t for trigger
 * w for window
 *
 * and you can mix and match these in any order.
 */
bool
describeFunctions(const char *functypes, const char *pattern, bool verbose, bool showSystem)
{
      bool        showAggregate = strchr(functypes, 'a') != NULL;
      bool        showNormal = strchr(functypes, 'n') != NULL;
      bool        showTrigger = strchr(functypes, 't') != NULL;
      bool        showWindow = strchr(functypes, 'w') != NULL;
      bool        have_where;
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;
      static const bool translate_columns[] = {false, false, false, false, true, true, false, false, false, false};

      if (strlen(functypes) != strspn(functypes, "antwS+"))
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("\\df only takes [antwS+] as options\n"));
            return true;
      }

      if (showWindow && pset.sversion < 80400)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("\\df does not take a \"w\" option with server version %d.%d\n"),
                        pset.sversion / 10000, (pset.sversion / 100) % 100);
            return true;
      }

      if (!showAggregate && !showNormal && !showTrigger && !showWindow)
      {
            showAggregate = showNormal = showTrigger = true;
            if (pset.sversion >= 80400)
                  showWindow = true;
      }

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  p.proname as \"%s\",\n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"));

      if (pset.sversion >= 80400)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                              "  pg_catalog.pg_get_function_result(p.oid) as \"%s\",\n"
                         "  pg_catalog.pg_get_function_arguments(p.oid) as \"%s\",\n"
                                      " CASE\n"
                                      "  WHEN p.proisagg THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "  WHEN p.proiswindow THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "  WHEN p.prorettype = 'pg_catalog.trigger'::pg_catalog.regtype THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "  ELSE '%s'\n"
                                      "END as \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Result data type"),
                                      gettext_noop("Argument data types"),
            /* translator: "agg" is short for "aggregate" */
                                      gettext_noop("agg"),
                                      gettext_noop("window"),
                                      gettext_noop("trigger"),
                                      gettext_noop("normal"),
                                      gettext_noop("Type"));
      else if (pset.sversion >= 80100)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                               "  CASE WHEN p.proretset THEN 'SETOF ' ELSE '' END ||\n"
                          "  pg_catalog.format_type(p.prorettype, NULL) as \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  CASE WHEN proallargtypes IS NOT NULL THEN\n"
                                      "    pg_catalog.array_to_string(ARRAY(\n"
                                      "      SELECT\n"
                                      "        CASE\n"
                                      "          WHEN p.proargmodes[s.i] = 'i' THEN ''\n"
                                "          WHEN p.proargmodes[s.i] = 'o' THEN 'OUT '\n"
                              "          WHEN p.proargmodes[s.i] = 'b' THEN 'INOUT '\n"
                         "          WHEN p.proargmodes[s.i] = 'v' THEN 'VARIADIC '\n"
                                      "        END ||\n"
                                      "        CASE\n"
                   "          WHEN COALESCE(p.proargnames[s.i], '') = '' THEN ''\n"
                                      "          ELSE p.proargnames[s.i] || ' ' \n"
                                      "        END ||\n"
                    "        pg_catalog.format_type(p.proallargtypes[s.i], NULL)\n"
                                      "      FROM\n"
                                      "        pg_catalog.generate_series(1, pg_catalog.array_upper(p.proallargtypes, 1)) AS s(i)\n"
                                      "    ), ', ')\n"
                                      "  ELSE\n"
                                      "    pg_catalog.array_to_string(ARRAY(\n"
                                      "      SELECT\n"
                                      "        CASE\n"
               "          WHEN COALESCE(p.proargnames[s.i+1], '') = '' THEN ''\n"
                                      "          ELSE p.proargnames[s.i+1] || ' '\n"
                                      "          END ||\n"
                         "        pg_catalog.format_type(p.proargtypes[s.i], NULL)\n"
                                      "      FROM\n"
                                      "        pg_catalog.generate_series(0, pg_catalog.array_upper(p.proargtypes, 1)) AS s(i)\n"
                                      "    ), ', ')\n"
                                      "  END AS \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  CASE\n"
                                      "    WHEN p.proisagg THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "    WHEN p.prorettype = 'pg_catalog.trigger'::pg_catalog.regtype THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "    ELSE '%s'\n"
                                      "  END AS \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Result data type"),
                                      gettext_noop("Argument data types"),
            /* translator: "agg" is short for "aggregate" */
                                      gettext_noop("agg"),
                                      gettext_noop("trigger"),
                                      gettext_noop("normal"),
                                      gettext_noop("Type"));
      else
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                               "  CASE WHEN p.proretset THEN 'SETOF ' ELSE '' END ||\n"
                          "  pg_catalog.format_type(p.prorettype, NULL) as \"%s\",\n"
                              "  pg_catalog.oidvectortypes(p.proargtypes) as \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  CASE\n"
                                      "    WHEN p.proisagg THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "    WHEN p.prorettype = 'pg_catalog.trigger'::pg_catalog.regtype THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "    ELSE '%s'\n"
                                      "  END AS \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Result data type"),
                                      gettext_noop("Argument data types"),
            /* translator: "agg" is short for "aggregate" */
                                      gettext_noop("agg"),
                                      gettext_noop("trigger"),
                                      gettext_noop("normal"),
                                      gettext_noop("Type"));

      if (verbose)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n CASE\n"
                                      "  WHEN p.provolatile = 'i' THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "  WHEN p.provolatile = 's' THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "  WHEN p.provolatile = 'v' THEN '%s'\n"
                                      "END as \"%s\""
                           ",\n  pg_catalog.pg_get_userbyid(p.proowner) as \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  l.lanname as \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  p.prosrc as \"%s\",\n"
                          "  pg_catalog.obj_description(p.oid, 'pg_proc') as \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("immutable"),
                                      gettext_noop("stable"),
                                      gettext_noop("volatile"),
                                      gettext_noop("Volatility"),
                                      gettext_noop("Owner"),
                                      gettext_noop("Language"),
                                      gettext_noop("Source code"),
                                      gettext_noop("Description"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_proc p"
      "\n     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = p.pronamespace\n");

      if (verbose)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
               "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_language l ON l.oid = p.prolang\n");

      have_where = false;

      /* filter by function type, if requested */
      if (showNormal && showAggregate && showTrigger && showWindow)
             /* Do nothing */ ;
      else if (showNormal)
      {
            if (!showAggregate)
            {
                  if (have_where)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND ");
                  else
                  {
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE ");
                        have_where = true;
                  }
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "NOT p.proisagg\n");
            }
            if (!showTrigger)
            {
                  if (have_where)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND ");
                  else
                  {
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE ");
                        have_where = true;
                  }
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "p.prorettype <> 'pg_catalog.trigger'::pg_catalog.regtype\n");
            }
            if (!showWindow && pset.sversion >= 80400)
            {
                  if (have_where)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND ");
                  else
                  {
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE ");
                        have_where = true;
                  }
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "NOT p.proiswindow\n");
            }
      }
      else
      {
            bool        needs_or = false;

            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE (\n       ");
            have_where = true;
            /* Note: at least one of these must be true ... */
            if (showAggregate)
            {
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "p.proisagg\n");
                  needs_or = true;
            }
            if (showTrigger)
            {
                  if (needs_or)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "       OR ");
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                        "p.prorettype = 'pg_catalog.trigger'::pg_catalog.regtype\n");
                  needs_or = true;
            }
            if (showWindow)
            {
                  if (needs_or)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "       OR ");
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "p.proiswindow\n");
                  needs_or = true;
            }
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      )\n");
      }

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, have_where, true,
                                      "n.nspname", "p.proname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_function_is_visible(p.oid)");

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2, 4;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of functions");
      myopt.translate_header = true;
      myopt.translate_columns = translate_columns;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}



/*
 * \dT
 * describe types
 */
bool
describeTypes(const char *pattern, bool verbose, bool showSystem)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  pg_catalog.format_type(t.oid, NULL) AS \"%s\",\n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"));
      if (verbose)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "  t.typname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  CASE WHEN t.typrelid != 0\n"
                                      "      THEN CAST('tuple' AS pg_catalog.text)\n"
                                      "    WHEN t.typlen < 0\n"
                                      "      THEN CAST('var' AS pg_catalog.text)\n"
                                      "    ELSE CAST(t.typlen AS pg_catalog.text)\n"
                                      "  END AS \"%s\",\n",
                                      gettext_noop("Internal name"),
                                      gettext_noop("Size"));
      if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80300)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "  pg_catalog.array_to_string(\n"
                                      "      ARRAY(\n"
                                      "              SELECT e.enumlabel\n"
                                      "          FROM pg_catalog.pg_enum e\n"
                                      "          WHERE e.enumtypid = t.oid\n"
                                      "          ORDER BY e.oid\n"
                                      "      ),\n"
                                      "      E'\\n'\n"
                                      "  ) AS \"%s\",\n",
                                      gettext_noop("Elements"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                        "  pg_catalog.obj_description(t.oid, 'pg_type') as \"%s\"\n",
                                gettext_noop("Description"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "FROM pg_catalog.pg_type t\n"
       "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = t.typnamespace\n");

      /*
       * do not include complex types (typrelid!=0) unless they are standalone
       * composite types
       */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE (t.typrelid = 0 ");
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "OR (SELECT c.relkind = 'c' FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c "
                                "WHERE c.oid = t.typrelid))\n");

      /*
       * do not include array types (before 8.3 we have to use the assumption
       * that their names start with underscore)
       */
      if (pset.sversion >= 80300)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "  AND NOT EXISTS(SELECT 1 FROM pg_catalog.pg_type el WHERE el.oid = t.typelem AND el.typarray = t.oid)\n");
      else
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "  AND t.typname !~ '^_'\n");

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      /* Match name pattern against either internal or external name */
      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "t.typname",
                                      "pg_catalog.format_type(t.oid, NULL)",
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_type_is_visible(t.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of data types");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/* \do
 */
bool
describeOperators(const char *pattern, bool showSystem)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  o.oprname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  CASE WHEN o.oprkind='l' THEN NULL ELSE pg_catalog.format_type(o.oprleft, NULL) END AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  CASE WHEN o.oprkind='r' THEN NULL ELSE pg_catalog.format_type(o.oprright, NULL) END AS \"%s\",\n"
                           "  pg_catalog.format_type(o.oprresult, NULL) AS \"%s\",\n"
                   "  coalesce(pg_catalog.obj_description(o.oid, 'pg_operator'),\n"
      "           pg_catalog.obj_description(o.oprcode, 'pg_proc')) AS \"%s\"\n"
                                "FROM pg_catalog.pg_operator o\n"
        "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = o.oprnamespace\n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Left arg type"),
                                gettext_noop("Right arg type"),
                                gettext_noop("Result type"),
                                gettext_noop("Description"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, !showSystem && !pattern, true,
                                      "n.nspname", "o.oprname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_operator_is_visible(o.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2, 3, 4;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of operators");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/*
 * listAllDbs
 *
 * for \l, \list, and -l switch
 */
bool
listAllDbs(bool verbose)
{
      PGresult   *res;
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT d.datname as \"%s\",\n"
                           "       pg_catalog.pg_get_userbyid(d.datdba) as \"%s\",\n"
                  "       pg_catalog.pg_encoding_to_char(d.encoding) as \"%s\",\n",
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Owner"),
                                gettext_noop("Encoding"));
      if (pset.sversion >= 80400)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "       d.datcollate as \"%s\",\n"
                                      "       d.datctype as \"%s\",\n",
                                      gettext_noop("Collation"),
                                      gettext_noop("Ctype"));
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "       ");
      printACLColumn(&buf, "d.datacl");
      if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80200)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n       CASE WHEN pg_catalog.has_database_privilege(d.datname, 'CONNECT')\n"
                                      "            THEN pg_catalog.pg_size_pretty(pg_catalog.pg_database_size(d.datname))\n"
                                      "            ELSE 'No Access'\n"
                                      "       END as \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Size"));
      if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80000)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n       t.spcname as \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Tablespace"));
      if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80200)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n       pg_catalog.shobj_description(d.oid, 'pg_database') as \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Description"));
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_database d\n");
      if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80000)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
               "  JOIN pg_catalog.pg_tablespace t on d.dattablespace = t.oid\n");
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1;");
      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of databases");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/*
 * List Tables' Grant/Revoke Permissions
 * \z (now also \dp -- perhaps more mnemonic)
 */
bool
permissionsList(const char *pattern)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;
      static const bool translate_columns[] = {false, false, true, false, false};

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      /*
       * we ignore indexes and toast tables since they have no meaningful rights
       */
      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  c.relname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  CASE c.relkind WHEN 'r' THEN '%s' WHEN 'v' THEN '%s' WHEN 'S' THEN '%s' END as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  ",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
         gettext_noop("table"), gettext_noop("view"), gettext_noop("sequence"),
                                gettext_noop("Type"));

      printACLColumn(&buf, "c.relacl");

      if (pset.sversion >= 80400)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n  pg_catalog.array_to_string(ARRAY(\n"
                                      "    SELECT attname || E':\\n  ' || pg_catalog.array_to_string(attacl, E'\\n  ')\n"
                                      "    FROM pg_catalog.pg_attribute a\n"
                                      "    WHERE attrelid = c.oid AND NOT attisdropped AND attacl IS NOT NULL\n"
                                      "  ), E'\\n') AS \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Column access privileges"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_class c\n"
         "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace\n"
                                "WHERE c.relkind IN ('r', 'v', 'S')\n");

      /*
       * Unless a schema pattern is specified, we suppress system and temp
       * tables, since they normally aren't very interesting from a permissions
       * point of view.  You can see 'em by explicit request though, eg with \z
       * pg_catalog.*
       */
      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "c.relname", NULL,
                  "n.nspname !~ '^pg_' AND pg_catalog.pg_table_is_visible(c.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      if (!res)
      {
            termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
            return false;
      }

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Access privileges"));
      myopt.title = buf.data;
      myopt.translate_header = true;
      myopt.translate_columns = translate_columns;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}



/*
 * Get object comments
 *
 * \dd [foo]
 *
 * Note: This only lists things that actually have a description. For complete
 * lists of things, there are other \d? commands.
 */
bool
objectDescription(const char *pattern, bool showSystem)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;
      static const bool translate_columns[] = {false, false, true, false};

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT DISTINCT tt.nspname AS \"%s\", tt.name AS \"%s\", tt.object AS \"%s\", d.description AS \"%s\"\n"
                                "FROM (\n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Object"),
                                gettext_noop("Description"));

      /* Aggregate descriptions */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "  SELECT p.oid as oid, p.tableoid as tableoid,\n"
                                "  n.nspname as nspname,\n"
                                "  CAST(p.proname AS pg_catalog.text) as name,"
                                "  CAST('%s' AS pg_catalog.text) as object\n"
                                "  FROM pg_catalog.pg_proc p\n"
       "       LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = p.pronamespace\n"
                                "  WHERE p.proisagg\n",
                                gettext_noop("aggregate"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "p.proname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_function_is_visible(p.oid)");

      /* Function descriptions */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "UNION ALL\n"
                                "  SELECT p.oid as oid, p.tableoid as tableoid,\n"
                                "  n.nspname as nspname,\n"
                                "  CAST(p.proname AS pg_catalog.text) as name,"
                                "  CAST('%s' AS pg_catalog.text) as object\n"
                                "  FROM pg_catalog.pg_proc p\n"
       "       LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = p.pronamespace\n"
                                "  WHERE NOT p.proisagg\n",
                                gettext_noop("function"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "p.proname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_function_is_visible(p.oid)");

      /* Operator descriptions (only if operator has its own comment) */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "UNION ALL\n"
                                "  SELECT o.oid as oid, o.tableoid as tableoid,\n"
                                "  n.nspname as nspname,\n"
                                "  CAST(o.oprname AS pg_catalog.text) as name,"
                                "  CAST('%s' AS pg_catalog.text) as object\n"
                                "  FROM pg_catalog.pg_operator o\n"
      "       LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = o.oprnamespace\n",
                                gettext_noop("operator"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, !showSystem && !pattern, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "o.oprname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_operator_is_visible(o.oid)");

      /* Type description */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "UNION ALL\n"
                                "  SELECT t.oid as oid, t.tableoid as tableoid,\n"
                                "  n.nspname as nspname,\n"
                                "  pg_catalog.format_type(t.oid, NULL) as name,"
                                "  CAST('%s' AS pg_catalog.text) as object\n"
                                "  FROM pg_catalog.pg_type t\n"
      "       LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = t.typnamespace\n",
                                gettext_noop("data type"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, !showSystem && !pattern, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "pg_catalog.format_type(t.oid, NULL)",
                                      NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_type_is_visible(t.oid)");

      /* Relation (tables, views, indexes, sequences) descriptions */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "UNION ALL\n"
                                "  SELECT c.oid as oid, c.tableoid as tableoid,\n"
                                "  n.nspname as nspname,\n"
                                "  CAST(c.relname AS pg_catalog.text) as name,\n"
                                "  CAST(\n"
                                "    CASE c.relkind WHEN 'r' THEN '%s' WHEN 'v' THEN '%s' WHEN 'i' THEN '%s' WHEN 'S' THEN '%s' END"
                                "  AS pg_catalog.text) as object\n"
                                "  FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c\n"
       "       LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace\n"
                                "  WHERE c.relkind IN ('r', 'v', 'i', 'S')\n",
                                gettext_noop("table"),
                                gettext_noop("view"),
                                gettext_noop("index"),
                                gettext_noop("sequence"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "c.relname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_table_is_visible(c.oid)");

      /* Rule description (ignore rules for views) */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "UNION ALL\n"
                                "  SELECT r.oid as oid, r.tableoid as tableoid,\n"
                                "  n.nspname as nspname,\n"
                                "  CAST(r.rulename AS pg_catalog.text) as name,"
                                "  CAST('%s' AS pg_catalog.text) as object\n"
                                "  FROM pg_catalog.pg_rewrite r\n"
                          "       JOIN pg_catalog.pg_class c ON c.oid = r.ev_class\n"
       "       LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace\n"
                                "  WHERE r.rulename != '_RETURN'\n",
                                gettext_noop("rule"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      /* XXX not sure what to do about visibility rule here? */
      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "r.rulename", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_table_is_visible(c.oid)");

      /* Trigger description */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "UNION ALL\n"
                                "  SELECT t.oid as oid, t.tableoid as tableoid,\n"
                                "  n.nspname as nspname,\n"
                                "  CAST(t.tgname AS pg_catalog.text) as name,"
                                "  CAST('%s' AS pg_catalog.text) as object\n"
                                "  FROM pg_catalog.pg_trigger t\n"
                           "       JOIN pg_catalog.pg_class c ON c.oid = t.tgrelid\n"
      "       LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace\n",
                                gettext_noop("trigger"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      /* XXX not sure what to do about visibility rule here? */
      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, !showSystem && !pattern, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "t.tgname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_table_is_visible(c.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                ") AS tt\n"
                                "  JOIN pg_catalog.pg_description d ON (tt.oid = d.objoid AND tt.tableoid = d.classoid AND d.objsubid = 0)\n");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2, 3;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("Object descriptions");
      myopt.translate_header = true;
      myopt.translate_columns = translate_columns;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/*
 * describeTableDetails (for \d)
 *
 * This routine finds the tables to be displayed, and calls
 * describeOneTableDetails for each one.
 *
 * verbose: if true, this is \d+
 */
bool
describeTableDetails(const char *pattern, bool verbose, bool showSystem)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      int               i;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT c.oid,\n"
                                "  n.nspname,\n"
                                "  c.relname\n"
                                "FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c\n"
       "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace\n");

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "WHERE n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, !showSystem && !pattern, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "c.relname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_table_is_visible(c.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 2, 3;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      if (PQntuples(res) == 0)
      {
            if (!pset.quiet)
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Did not find any relation named \"%s\".\n"),
                              pattern);
            PQclear(res);
            return false;
      }

      for (i = 0; i < PQntuples(res); i++)
      {
            const char *oid;
            const char *nspname;
            const char *relname;

            oid = PQgetvalue(res, i, 0);
            nspname = PQgetvalue(res, i, 1);
            relname = PQgetvalue(res, i, 2);

            if (!describeOneTableDetails(nspname, relname, oid, verbose))
            {
                  PQclear(res);
                  return false;
            }
            if (cancel_pressed)
            {
                  PQclear(res);
                  return false;
            }
      }

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

/*
 * describeOneTableDetails (for \d)
 *
 * Unfortunately, the information presented here is so complicated that it
 * cannot be done in a single query. So we have to assemble the printed table
 * by hand and pass it to the underlying printTable() function.
 */
static bool
describeOneTableDetails(const char *schemaname,
                                    const char *relationname,
                                    const char *oid,
                                    bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res = NULL;
      printTableOpt myopt = pset.popt.topt;
      printTableContent cont;
      bool        printTableInitialized = false;
      int               i;
      char     *view_def = NULL;
      char     *headers[6];
      char    **seq_values = NULL;
      char    **modifiers = NULL;
      char    **ptr;
      PQExpBufferData title;
      PQExpBufferData tmpbuf;
      int               cols = 0;
      int               numrows = 0;
      struct
      {
            int16       checks;
            char        relkind;
            bool        hasindex;
            bool        hasrules;
            bool        hastriggers;
            bool        hasoids;
            Oid               tablespace;
            char     *reloptions;
      }                 tableinfo;
      bool        show_modifiers = false;
      bool        retval;

      retval = false;

      /* This output looks confusing in expanded mode. */
      myopt.expanded = false;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      initPQExpBuffer(&title);
      initPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf);

      /* Get general table info */
      if (pset.sversion >= 80400)
      {
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                    "SELECT c.relchecks, c.relkind, c.relhasindex, c.relhasrules, "
                                      "c.relhastriggers, c.relhasoids, "
                                      "%s, c.reltablespace\n"
                                      "FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c\n "
               "LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_class tc ON (c.reltoastrelid = tc.oid)\n"
                                      "WHERE c.oid = '%s'\n",
                                      (verbose ?
                                       "pg_catalog.array_to_string(c.reloptions || "
                                       "array(select 'toast.' || x from pg_catalog.unnest(tc.reloptions) x), ', ')\n"
                                       : "''"),
                                      oid);
      }
      else if (pset.sversion >= 80200)
      {
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT relchecks, relkind, relhasindex, relhasrules, "
                                      "reltriggers <> 0, relhasoids, "
                                      "%s, reltablespace\n"
                                      "FROM pg_catalog.pg_class WHERE oid = '%s'",
                                      (verbose ?
                               "pg_catalog.array_to_string(reloptions, E', ')" : "''"),
                                      oid);
      }
      else if (pset.sversion >= 80000)
      {
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT relchecks, relkind, relhasindex, relhasrules, "
                                      "reltriggers <> 0, relhasoids, "
                                      "'', reltablespace\n"
                                      "FROM pg_catalog.pg_class WHERE oid = '%s'",
                                      oid);
      }
      else
      {
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT relchecks, relkind, relhasindex, relhasrules, "
                                      "reltriggers <> 0, relhasoids, "
                                      "'', ''\n"
                                      "FROM pg_catalog.pg_class WHERE oid = '%s'",
                                      oid);
      }

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      if (!res)
            goto error_return;

      /* Did we get anything? */
      if (PQntuples(res) == 0)
      {
            if (!pset.quiet)
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Did not find any relation with OID %s.\n"),
                              oid);
            goto error_return;
      }

      tableinfo.checks = atoi(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 0));
      tableinfo.relkind = *(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 1));
      tableinfo.hasindex = strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 2), "t") == 0;
      tableinfo.hasrules = strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 3), "t") == 0;
      tableinfo.hastriggers = strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 4), "t") == 0;
      tableinfo.hasoids = strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 5), "t") == 0;
      tableinfo.reloptions = pset.sversion >= 80200 ?
            strdup(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 6)) : 0;
      tableinfo.tablespace = (pset.sversion >= 80000) ?
            atooid(PQgetvalue(res, 0, 7)) : 0;
      PQclear(res);
      res = NULL;

      /*
       * If it's a sequence, fetch its values and store into an array that will
       * be used later.
       */
      if (tableinfo.relkind == 'S')
      {
            PGresult   *result;

#define SEQ_NUM_COLS 10
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "SELECT sequence_name, last_value,\n"
                                      "       start_value, increment_by,\n"
                                      "       max_value, min_value, cache_value,\n"
                                      "       log_cnt, is_cycled, is_called\n"
                                      "FROM %s",
                                      fmtId(schemaname));
            /* must be separate because fmtId isn't reentrant */
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ".%s", fmtId(relationname));

            result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
            if (!result)
                  goto error_return;

            seq_values = pg_malloc_zero((SEQ_NUM_COLS + 1) * sizeof(*seq_values));

            for (i = 0; i < SEQ_NUM_COLS; i++)
                  seq_values[i] = pg_strdup(PQgetvalue(result, 0, i));

            PQclear(result);
      }

      /* Get column info (index requires additional checks) */
      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "SELECT a.attname,");
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "\n  pg_catalog.format_type(a.atttypid, a.atttypmod),"
                                "\n  (SELECT substring(pg_catalog.pg_get_expr(d.adbin, d.adrelid) for 128)"
                                "\n   FROM pg_catalog.pg_attrdef d"
                                "\n   WHERE d.adrelid = a.attrelid AND d.adnum = a.attnum AND a.atthasdef),"
                                "\n  a.attnotnull, a.attnum");
      if (verbose)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ", a.attstorage, pg_catalog.col_description(a.attrelid, a.attnum)");
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_attribute a");
      if (tableinfo.relkind == 'i')
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ", pg_catalog.pg_index i");
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "\nWHERE a.attrelid = '%s' AND a.attnum > 0 AND NOT a.attisdropped", oid);
      if (tableinfo.relkind == 'i')
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, " AND a.attrelid = i.indexrelid");
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "\nORDER BY a.attnum");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      if (!res)
            goto error_return;
      numrows = PQntuples(res);

      /* Make title */
      switch (tableinfo.relkind)
      {
            case 'r':
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&title, _("Table \"%s.%s\""),
                                            schemaname, relationname);
                  break;
            case 'v':
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&title, _("View \"%s.%s\""),
                                            schemaname, relationname);
                  break;
            case 'S':
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&title, _("Sequence \"%s.%s\""),
                                            schemaname, relationname);
                  break;
            case 'i':
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&title, _("Index \"%s.%s\""),
                                            schemaname, relationname);
                  break;
            case 's':
                  /* not used as of 8.2, but keep it for backwards compatibility */
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&title, _("Special relation \"%s.%s\""),
                                            schemaname, relationname);
                  break;
            case 't':
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&title, _("TOAST table \"%s.%s\""),
                                            schemaname, relationname);
                  break;
            case 'c':
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&title, _("Composite type \"%s.%s\""),
                                            schemaname, relationname);
                  break;
            default:
                  /* untranslated unknown relkind */
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&title, "?%c? \"%s.%s\"",
                                            tableinfo.relkind, schemaname, relationname);
                  break;
      }

      /* Set the number of columns, and their names */
      cols += 2;
      headers[0] = gettext_noop("Column");
      headers[1] = gettext_noop("Type");

      if (tableinfo.relkind == 'r' || tableinfo.relkind == 'v')
      {
            show_modifiers = true;
            headers[cols++] = gettext_noop("Modifiers");
            modifiers = pg_malloc_zero((numrows + 1) * sizeof(*modifiers));
      }

      if (tableinfo.relkind == 'S')
            headers[cols++] = gettext_noop("Value");

      if (verbose)
      {
            headers[cols++] = gettext_noop("Storage");
            headers[cols++] = gettext_noop("Description");
      }

      printTableInit(&cont, &myopt, title.data, cols, numrows);
      printTableInitialized = true;

      for (i = 0; i < cols; i++)
            printTableAddHeader(&cont, headers[i], true, 'l');

      /* Check if table is a view */
      if (tableinfo.relkind == 'v')
      {
            PGresult   *result;

            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                    "SELECT pg_catalog.pg_get_viewdef('%s'::pg_catalog.oid, true)",
                                      oid);
            result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
            if (!result)
                  goto error_return;

            if (PQntuples(result) > 0)
                  view_def = pg_strdup(PQgetvalue(result, 0, 0));

            PQclear(result);
      }

      /* Generate table cells to be printed */
      for (i = 0; i < numrows; i++)
      {
            /* Column */
            printTableAddCell(&cont, PQgetvalue(res, i, 0), false);

            /* Type */
            printTableAddCell(&cont, PQgetvalue(res, i, 1), false);

            /* Modifiers: not null and default */
            if (show_modifiers)
            {
                  resetPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf);
                  if (strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, i, 3), "t") == 0)
                        appendPQExpBufferStr(&tmpbuf, _("not null"));

                  /* handle "default" here */
                  /* (note: above we cut off the 'default' string at 128) */
                  if (strlen(PQgetvalue(res, i, 2)) != 0)
                  {
                        if (tmpbuf.len > 0)
                              appendPQExpBufferStr(&tmpbuf, " ");
                        /* translator: default values of column definitions */
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf, _("default %s"),
                                                  PQgetvalue(res, i, 2));
                  }

                  modifiers[i] = pg_strdup(tmpbuf.data);
                  printTableAddCell(&cont, modifiers[i], false);
            }

            /* Value: for sequences only */
            if (tableinfo.relkind == 'S')
                  printTableAddCell(&cont, seq_values[i], false);

            /* Storage and Description */
            if (verbose)
            {
                  char     *storage = PQgetvalue(res, i, 5);

                  /* these strings are literal in our syntax, so not translated. */
                  printTableAddCell(&cont, (storage[0] == 'p' ? "plain" :
                                                        (storage[0] == 'm' ? "main" :
                                                         (storage[0] == 'x' ? "extended" :
                                                            (storage[0] == 'e' ? "external" :
                                                             "???")))),
                                            false);
                  printTableAddCell(&cont, PQgetvalue(res, i, 6), false);
            }
      }

      /* Make footers */
      if (tableinfo.relkind == 'i')
      {
            /* Footer information about an index */
            PGresult   *result;

            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                         "SELECT i.indisunique, i.indisprimary, i.indisclustered, ");
            if (pset.sversion >= 80200)
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "i.indisvalid, ");
            else
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "true as indisvalid, ");
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "a.amname, c2.relname,\n"
                              "  pg_catalog.pg_get_expr(i.indpred, i.indrelid, true)\n"
                                      "FROM pg_catalog.pg_index i, pg_catalog.pg_class c, pg_catalog.pg_class c2, pg_catalog.pg_am a\n"
              "WHERE i.indexrelid = c.oid AND c.oid = '%s' AND c.relam = a.oid\n"
                                      "AND i.indrelid = c2.oid",
                                      oid);

            result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
            if (!result)
                  goto error_return;
            else if (PQntuples(result) != 1)
            {
                  PQclear(result);
                  goto error_return;
            }
            else
            {
                  char     *indisunique = PQgetvalue(result, 0, 0);
                  char     *indisprimary = PQgetvalue(result, 0, 1);
                  char     *indisclustered = PQgetvalue(result, 0, 2);
                  char     *indisvalid = PQgetvalue(result, 0, 3);
                  char     *indamname = PQgetvalue(result, 0, 4);
                  char     *indtable = PQgetvalue(result, 0, 5);
                  char     *indpred = PQgetvalue(result, 0, 6);

                  if (strcmp(indisprimary, "t") == 0)
                        printfPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf, _("primary key, "));
                  else if (strcmp(indisunique, "t") == 0)
                        printfPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf, _("unique, "));
                  else
                        resetPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf);
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf, "%s, ", indamname);

                  /* we assume here that index and table are in same schema */
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf, _("for table \"%s.%s\""),
                                            schemaname, indtable);

                  if (strlen(indpred))
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf, _(", predicate (%s)"), indpred);

                  if (strcmp(indisclustered, "t") == 0)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf, _(", clustered"));

                  if (strcmp(indisvalid, "t") != 0)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf, _(", invalid"));

                  printTableAddFooter(&cont, tmpbuf.data);
                  add_tablespace_footer(&cont, tableinfo.relkind,
                                                  tableinfo.tablespace, true);
            }

            PQclear(result);
      }
      else if (view_def)
      {
            PGresult   *result = NULL;

            /* Footer information about a view */
            printTableAddFooter(&cont, _("View definition:"));
            printTableAddFooter(&cont, view_def);

            /* print rules */
            if (tableinfo.hasrules)
            {
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                            "SELECT r.rulename, trim(trailing ';' from pg_catalog.pg_get_ruledef(r.oid, true))\n"
                                            "FROM pg_catalog.pg_rewrite r\n"
                  "WHERE r.ev_class = '%s' AND r.rulename != '_RETURN' ORDER BY 1",
                                            oid);
                  result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
                  if (!result)
                        goto error_return;

                  if (PQntuples(result) > 0)
                  {
                        printTableAddFooter(&cont, _("Rules:"));
                        for (i = 0; i < PQntuples(result); i++)
                        {
                              const char *ruledef;

                              /* Everything after "CREATE RULE" is echoed verbatim */
                              ruledef = PQgetvalue(result, i, 1);
                              ruledef += 12;

                              printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, " %s", ruledef);
                              printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
                        }
                  }
                  PQclear(result);
            }
      }
      else if (tableinfo.relkind == 'r')
      {
            /* Footer information about a table */
            PGresult   *result = NULL;
            int               tuples = 0;

            /* print indexes */
            if (tableinfo.hasindex)
            {
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                            "SELECT c2.relname, i.indisprimary, i.indisunique, i.indisclustered, ");
                  if (pset.sversion >= 80200)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "i.indisvalid, ");
                  else
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "true as indisvalid, ");
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "pg_catalog.pg_get_indexdef(i.indexrelid, 0, true)");
                  if (pset.sversion >= 80000)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ", c2.reltablespace");
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                            "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_class c, pg_catalog.pg_class c2, pg_catalog.pg_index i\n"
                                            "WHERE c.oid = '%s' AND c.oid = i.indrelid AND i.indexrelid = c2.oid\n"
                    "ORDER BY i.indisprimary DESC, i.indisunique DESC, c2.relname",
                                            oid);
                  result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
                  if (!result)
                        goto error_return;
                  else
                        tuples = PQntuples(result);

                  if (tuples > 0)
                  {
                        printTableAddFooter(&cont, _("Indexes:"));
                        for (i = 0; i < tuples; i++)
                        {
                              const char *indexdef;
                              const char *usingpos;

                              /* untranslated index name */
                              printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "    \"%s\"",
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, i, 0));

                              /* Label as primary key or unique (but not both) */
                              appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                                   strcmp(PQgetvalue(result, i, 1), "t") == 0
                                                        ? " PRIMARY KEY," :
                                                  (strcmp(PQgetvalue(result, i, 2), "t") == 0
                                                   ? " UNIQUE,"
                                                   : ""));
                              /* Everything after "USING" is echoed verbatim */
                              indexdef = PQgetvalue(result, i, 5);
                              usingpos = strstr(indexdef, " USING ");
                              if (usingpos)
                                    indexdef = usingpos + 7;

                              appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, " %s", indexdef);

                              if (strcmp(PQgetvalue(result, i, 3), "t") == 0)
                                    appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, " CLUSTER");

                              if (strcmp(PQgetvalue(result, i, 4), "t") != 0)
                                    appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, " INVALID");

                              printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);

                              /* Print tablespace of the index on the same line */
                              if (pset.sversion >= 80000)
                                    add_tablespace_footer(&cont, 'i',
                                                                  atooid(PQgetvalue(result, i, 6)),
                                                                    false);
                        }
                  }
                  PQclear(result);
            }

            /* print table (and column) check constraints */
            if (tableinfo.checks)
            {
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                            "SELECT r.conname, "
                                            "pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(r.oid, true)\n"
                                            "FROM pg_catalog.pg_constraint r\n"
                           "WHERE r.conrelid = '%s' AND r.contype = 'c'\nORDER BY 1",
                                            oid);
                  result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
                  if (!result)
                        goto error_return;
                  else
                        tuples = PQntuples(result);

                  if (tuples > 0)
                  {
                        printTableAddFooter(&cont, _("Check constraints:"));
                        for (i = 0; i < tuples; i++)
                        {
                              /* untranslated contraint name and def */
                              printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "    \"%s\" %s",
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, i, 0),
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, i, 1));

                              printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
                        }
                  }
                  PQclear(result);
            }

            /* print foreign-key constraints (there are none if no triggers) */
            if (tableinfo.hastriggers)
            {
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                            "SELECT conname,\n"
                         "  pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(r.oid, true) as condef\n"
                                            "FROM pg_catalog.pg_constraint r\n"
                              "WHERE r.conrelid = '%s' AND r.contype = 'f' ORDER BY 1",
                                            oid);
                  result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
                  if (!result)
                        goto error_return;
                  else
                        tuples = PQntuples(result);

                  if (tuples > 0)
                  {
                        printTableAddFooter(&cont, _("Foreign-key constraints:"));
                        for (i = 0; i < tuples; i++)
                        {
                              /* untranslated constraint name and def */
                              printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "    \"%s\" %s",
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, i, 0),
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, i, 1));

                              printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
                        }
                  }
                  PQclear(result);
            }

            /* print incoming foreign-key references (none if no triggers) */
            if (tableinfo.hastriggers)
            {
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                       "SELECT conname, conrelid::pg_catalog.regclass,\n"
                         "  pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(c.oid, true) as condef\n"
                                            "FROM pg_catalog.pg_constraint c\n"
                           "WHERE c.confrelid = '%s' AND c.contype = 'f' ORDER BY 1",
                                            oid);
                  result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
                  if (!result)
                        goto error_return;
                  else
                        tuples = PQntuples(result);

                  if (tuples > 0)
                  {
                        printTableAddFooter(&cont, _("Referenced by:"));
                        for (i = 0; i < tuples; i++)
                        {
                              printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "    TABLE \"%s\" CONSTRAINT \"%s\" %s",
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, i, 1),
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, i, 0),
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, i, 2));

                              printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
                        }
                  }
                  PQclear(result);
            }

            /* print rules */
            if (tableinfo.hasrules)
            {
                  if (pset.sversion >= 80300)
                  {
                        printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                                  "SELECT r.rulename, trim(trailing ';' from pg_catalog.pg_get_ruledef(r.oid, true)), "
                                                  "ev_enabled\n"
                                                  "FROM pg_catalog.pg_rewrite r\n"
                                                  "WHERE r.ev_class = '%s' ORDER BY 1",
                                                  oid);
                  }
                  else
                  {
                        printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                                  "SELECT r.rulename, trim(trailing ';' from pg_catalog.pg_get_ruledef(r.oid, true)), "
                                                  "'O'::char AS ev_enabled\n"
                                                  "FROM pg_catalog.pg_rewrite r\n"
                                                  "WHERE r.ev_class = '%s' ORDER BY 1",
                                                  oid);
                  }
                  result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
                  if (!result)
                        goto error_return;
                  else
                        tuples = PQntuples(result);

                  if (tuples > 0)
                  {
                        bool        have_heading;
                        int               category;

                        for (category = 0; category < 4; category++)
                        {
                              have_heading = false;

                              for (i = 0; i < tuples; i++)
                              {
                                    const char *ruledef;
                                    bool        list_rule = false;

                                    switch (category)
                                    {
                                          case 0:
                                                if (*PQgetvalue(result, i, 2) == 'O')
                                                      list_rule = true;
                                                break;
                                          case 1:
                                                if (*PQgetvalue(result, i, 2) == 'D')
                                                      list_rule = true;
                                                break;
                                          case 2:
                                                if (*PQgetvalue(result, i, 2) == 'A')
                                                      list_rule = true;
                                                break;
                                          case 3:
                                                if (*PQgetvalue(result, i, 2) == 'R')
                                                      list_rule = true;
                                                break;
                                    }
                                    if (!list_rule)
                                          continue;

                                    if (!have_heading)
                                    {
                                          switch (category)
                                          {
                                                case 0:
                                                      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Rules:"));
                                                      break;
                                                case 1:
                                                      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Disabled rules:"));
                                                      break;
                                                case 2:
                                                      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Rules firing always:"));
                                                      break;
                                                case 3:
                                                      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Rules firing on replica only:"));
                                                      break;
                                          }
                                          printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
                                          have_heading = true;
                                    }

                                    /* Everything after "CREATE RULE" is echoed verbatim */
                                    ruledef = PQgetvalue(result, i, 1);
                                    ruledef += 12;
                                    printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "    %s", ruledef);
                                    printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
                              }
                        }
                  }
                  PQclear(result);
            }

            /* print triggers (but ignore foreign-key triggers) */
            if (tableinfo.hastriggers)
            {
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                            "SELECT t.tgname, "
                                            "pg_catalog.pg_get_triggerdef(t.oid), "
                                            "t.tgenabled\n"
                                            "FROM pg_catalog.pg_trigger t\n"
                                            "WHERE t.tgrelid = '%s' AND ",
                                            oid);
                  if (pset.sversion >= 80300)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "t.tgconstraint = 0");
                  else
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                                  "(NOT tgisconstraint "
                                                  " OR NOT EXISTS"
                                                  "  (SELECT 1 FROM pg_catalog.pg_depend d "
                                                  "   JOIN pg_catalog.pg_constraint c ON (d.refclassid = c.tableoid AND d.refobjid = c.oid) "
                                                  "   WHERE d.classid = t.tableoid AND d.objid = t.oid AND d.deptype = 'i' AND c.contype = 'f'))");
                  appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "\nORDER BY 1");

                  result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
                  if (!result)
                        goto error_return;
                  else
                        tuples = PQntuples(result);

                  if (tuples > 0)
                  {
                        bool        have_heading;
                        int               category;

                        /*
                         * split the output into 4 different categories. Enabled
                         * triggers, disabled triggers and the two special ALWAYS and
                         * REPLICA configurations.
                         */
                        for (category = 0; category < 4; category++)
                        {
                              have_heading = false;
                              for (i = 0; i < tuples; i++)
                              {
                                    bool        list_trigger;
                                    const char *tgdef;
                                    const char *usingpos;
                                    const char *tgenabled;

                                    /*
                                     * Check if this trigger falls into the current
                                     * category
                                     */
                                    tgenabled = PQgetvalue(result, i, 2);
                                    list_trigger = false;
                                    switch (category)
                                    {
                                          case 0:
                                                if (*tgenabled == 'O' || *tgenabled == 't')
                                                      list_trigger = true;
                                                break;
                                          case 1:
                                                if (*tgenabled == 'D' || *tgenabled == 'f')
                                                      list_trigger = true;
                                                break;
                                          case 2:
                                                if (*tgenabled == 'A')
                                                      list_trigger = true;
                                                break;
                                          case 3:
                                                if (*tgenabled == 'R')
                                                      list_trigger = true;
                                                break;
                                    }
                                    if (list_trigger == false)
                                          continue;

                                    /* Print the category heading once */
                                    if (have_heading == false)
                                    {
                                          switch (category)
                                          {
                                                case 0:
                                                      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Triggers:"));
                                                      break;
                                                case 1:
                                                      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Disabled triggers:"));
                                                      break;
                                                case 2:
                                                      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Triggers firing always:"));
                                                      break;
                                                case 3:
                                                      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Triggers firing on replica only:"));
                                                      break;

                                          }
                                          printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
                                          have_heading = true;
                                    }

                                    /* Everything after "TRIGGER" is echoed verbatim */
                                    tgdef = PQgetvalue(result, i, 1);
                                    usingpos = strstr(tgdef, " TRIGGER ");
                                    if (usingpos)
                                          tgdef = usingpos + 9;

                                    printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "    %s", tgdef);
                                    printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
                              }
                        }
                  }
                  PQclear(result);
            }

            /* print inherited tables */
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "SELECT c.oid::pg_catalog.regclass FROM pg_catalog.pg_class c, pg_catalog.pg_inherits i WHERE c.oid=i.inhparent AND i.inhrelid = '%s' ORDER BY inhseqno", oid);

            result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
            if (!result)
                  goto error_return;
            else
                  tuples = PQntuples(result);

            for (i = 0; i < tuples; i++)
            {
                  const char *s = _("Inherits");

                  if (i == 0)
                        printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "%s: %s", s, PQgetvalue(result, i, 0));
                  else
                        printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "%*s  %s", (int) strlen(s), "", PQgetvalue(result, i, 0));
                  if (i < tuples - 1)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ",");

                  printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
            }
            PQclear(result);

            if (verbose)
            {
                  const char *s = _("Has OIDs");

                  printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "%s: %s", s,
                                            (tableinfo.hasoids ? _("yes") : _("no")));
                  printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);

                  /* print reloptions */
                  if (pset.sversion >= 80200)
                  {
                        if (tableinfo.reloptions && tableinfo.reloptions[0] != '\0')
                        {
                              const char *t = _("Options");

                              printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "%s: %s", t,
                                                        tableinfo.reloptions);
                              printTableAddFooter(&cont, buf.data);
                        }
                  }
            }

            add_tablespace_footer(&cont, tableinfo.relkind, tableinfo.tablespace,
                                            true);
      }

      printTable(&cont, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);
      printTableCleanup(&cont);

      retval = true;

error_return:

      /* clean up */
      if (printTableInitialized)
            printTableCleanup(&cont);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      termPQExpBuffer(&title);
      termPQExpBuffer(&tmpbuf);

      if (seq_values)
      {
            for (ptr = seq_values; *ptr; ptr++)
                  free(*ptr);
            free(seq_values);
      }

      if (modifiers)
      {
            for (ptr = modifiers; *ptr; ptr++)
                  free(*ptr);
            free(modifiers);
      }

      if (view_def)
            free(view_def);

      if (res)
            PQclear(res);

      return retval;
}

/*
 * Add a tablespace description to a footer.  If 'newline' is true, it is added
 * in a new line; otherwise it's appended to the current value of the last
 * footer.
 */
static void
add_tablespace_footer(printTableContent *const cont, char relkind,
                                Oid tablespace, const bool newline)
{
      /* relkinds for which we support tablespaces */
      if (relkind == 'r' || relkind == 'i')
      {
            /*
             * We ignore the database default tablespace so that users not using
             * tablespaces don't need to know about them.  This case also covers
             * pre-8.0 servers, for which tablespace will always be 0.
             */
            if (tablespace != 0)
            {
                  PGresult   *result = NULL;
                  PQExpBufferData buf;

                  initPQExpBuffer(&buf);
                  printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                            "SELECT spcname FROM pg_catalog.pg_tablespace\n"
                                            "WHERE oid = '%u'", tablespace);
                  result = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
                  if (!result)
                        return;
                  /* Should always be the case, but.... */
                  if (PQntuples(result) > 0)
                  {
                        if (newline)
                        {
                              /* Add the tablespace as a new footer */
                              printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("Tablespace: \"%s\""),
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, 0, 0));
                              printTableAddFooter(cont, buf.data);
                        }
                        else
                        {
                              /* Append the tablespace to the latest footer */
                              printfPQExpBuffer(&buf, "%s", cont->footer->data);

                              /*
                               * translator: before this string there's an index
                               * description like '"foo_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (a)'
                               */
                              appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, _(", tablespace \"%s\""),
                                                        PQgetvalue(result, 0, 0));
                              printTableSetFooter(cont, buf.data);
                        }
                  }
                  PQclear(result);
                  termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
            }
      }
}

/*
 * \du or \dg
 *
 * Describes roles.  Any schema portion of the pattern is ignored.
 */
bool
describeRoles(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printTableContent cont;
      printTableOpt myopt = pset.popt.topt;
      int               ncols = 3;
      int               nrows = 0;
      int               i;
      int               conns;
      const char  align = 'l';
      char    **attr;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      if (pset.sversion >= 80100)
      {
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "SELECT r.rolname, r.rolsuper, r.rolinherit,\n"
                                      "  r.rolcreaterole, r.rolcreatedb, r.rolcanlogin,\n"
                                      "  r.rolconnlimit,\n"
                                      "  ARRAY(SELECT b.rolname\n"
                                      "        FROM pg_catalog.pg_auth_members m\n"
                         "        JOIN pg_catalog.pg_roles b ON (m.roleid = b.oid)\n"
                                      "        WHERE m.member = r.oid) as memberof");

            if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80200)
            {
                  appendPQExpBufferStr(&buf, "\n, pg_catalog.shobj_description(r.oid, 'pg_authid') AS description");
                  ncols++;
            }

            appendPQExpBufferStr(&buf, "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_roles r\n");

            processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                            NULL, "r.rolname", NULL, NULL);
      }
      else
      {
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "SELECT u.usename AS rolname,\n"
                                      "  u.usesuper AS rolsuper,\n"
                                      "  true AS rolinherit, false AS rolcreaterole,\n"
                               "  u.usecreatedb AS rolcreatedb, true AS rolcanlogin,\n"
                                      "  -1 AS rolconnlimit,\n"
                                      "  ARRAY(SELECT g.groname FROM pg_catalog.pg_group g WHERE u.usesysid = ANY(g.grolist)) as memberof"
                                      "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_user u\n");

            processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                            NULL, "u.usename", NULL, NULL);
      }

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      nrows = PQntuples(res);
      attr = pg_malloc_zero((nrows + 1) * sizeof(*attr));

      printTableInit(&cont, &myopt, _("List of roles"), ncols, nrows);

      printTableAddHeader(&cont, gettext_noop("Role name"), true, align);
      printTableAddHeader(&cont, gettext_noop("Attributes"), true, align);
      printTableAddHeader(&cont, gettext_noop("Member of"), true, align);

      if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80200)
            printTableAddHeader(&cont, gettext_noop("Description"), true, align);

      for (i = 0; i < nrows; i++)
      {
            printTableAddCell(&cont, PQgetvalue(res, i, 0), false);

            resetPQExpBuffer(&buf);
            if (strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, i, 1), "t") == 0)
                  add_role_attribute(&buf, _("Superuser"));

            if (strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, i, 2), "t") != 0)
                  add_role_attribute(&buf, _("No inheritance"));

            if (strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, i, 3), "t") == 0)
                  add_role_attribute(&buf, _("Create role"));

            if (strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, i, 4), "t") == 0)
                  add_role_attribute(&buf, _("Create DB"));

            if (strcmp(PQgetvalue(res, i, 5), "t") != 0)
                  add_role_attribute(&buf, _("Cannot login"));

            conns = atoi(PQgetvalue(res, i, 6));
            if (conns >= 0)
            {
                  if (buf.len > 0)
                        appendPQExpBufferStr(&buf, "\n");

                  if (conns == 0)
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, _("No connections"));
                  else
                        appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ngettext("%d connection",
                                                                         "%d connections",
                                                                         conns),
                                                  conns);
            }

            attr[i] = pg_strdup(buf.data);

            printTableAddCell(&cont, attr[i], false);

            printTableAddCell(&cont, PQgetvalue(res, i, 7), false);

            if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80200)
                  printTableAddCell(&cont, PQgetvalue(res, i, 8), false);
      }
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printTable(&cont, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);
      printTableCleanup(&cont);

      for (i = 0; i < nrows; i++)
            free(attr[i]);
      free(attr);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

static void
add_role_attribute(PQExpBuffer buf, const char *const str)
{
      if (buf->len > 0)
            appendPQExpBufferStr(buf, "\n");

      appendPQExpBufferStr(buf, str);
}


/*
 * listTables()
 *
 * handler for \dt, \di, etc.
 *
 * tabtypes is an array of characters, specifying what info is desired:
 * t - tables
 * i - indexes
 * v - views
 * s - sequences
 * (any order of the above is fine)
 * If tabtypes is empty, we default to \dtvs.
 */
bool
listTables(const char *tabtypes, const char *pattern, bool verbose, bool showSystem)
{
      bool        showTables = strchr(tabtypes, 't') != NULL;
      bool        showIndexes = strchr(tabtypes, 'i') != NULL;
      bool        showViews = strchr(tabtypes, 'v') != NULL;
      bool        showSeq = strchr(tabtypes, 's') != NULL;

      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;
      static const bool translate_columns[] = {false, false, true, false, false, false, false};

      if (!(showTables || showIndexes || showViews || showSeq))
            showTables = showViews = showSeq = true;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      /*
       * Note: as of Pg 8.2, we no longer use relkind 's', but we keep it here
       * for backwards compatibility.
       */
      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  c.relname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  CASE c.relkind WHEN 'r' THEN '%s' WHEN 'v' THEN '%s' WHEN 'i' THEN '%s' WHEN 'S' THEN '%s' WHEN 's' THEN '%s' END as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  pg_catalog.pg_get_userbyid(c.relowner) as \"%s\"",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("table"),
                                gettext_noop("view"),
                                gettext_noop("index"),
                                gettext_noop("sequence"),
                                gettext_noop("special"),
                                gettext_noop("Type"),
                                gettext_noop("Owner"));

      if (showIndexes)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n c2.relname as \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Table"));

      if (verbose && pset.sversion >= 80100)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n  pg_catalog.pg_size_pretty(pg_catalog.pg_relation_size(c.oid)) as \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Size"));
      if (verbose)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                    ",\n  pg_catalog.obj_description(c.oid, 'pg_class') as \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Description"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_class c"
       "\n     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.relnamespace");
      if (showIndexes)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                   "\n     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_index i ON i.indexrelid = c.oid"
               "\n     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_class c2 ON i.indrelid = c2.oid");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "\nWHERE c.relkind IN (");
      if (showTables)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "'r',");
      if (showViews)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "'v',");
      if (showIndexes)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "'i',");
      if (showSeq)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "'S',");
      if (showSystem || pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "'s',");          /* was RELKIND_SPECIAL in <=
                                                                         * 8.1 */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "''");            /* dummy */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ")\n");

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      /*
       * TOAST objects are suppressed unconditionally.  Since we don't provide
       * any way to select relkind 't' above, we would never show toast tables
       * in any case; it seems a bit confusing to allow their indexes to be
       * shown. Use plain \d if you really need to look at a TOAST table/index.
       */
      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname !~ '^pg_toast'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "c.relname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_table_is_visible(c.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1,2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      if (PQntuples(res) == 0 && !pset.quiet)
      {
            if (pattern)
                  fprintf(pset.queryFout, _("No matching relations found.\n"));
            else
                  fprintf(pset.queryFout, _("No relations found.\n"));
      }
      else
      {
            myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
            myopt.title = _("List of relations");
            myopt.translate_header = true;
            myopt.translate_columns = translate_columns;

            printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);
      }

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/*
 * \dD
 *
 * Describes domains.
 */
bool
listDomains(const char *pattern, bool showSystem)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "       t.typname as \"%s\",\n"
       "       pg_catalog.format_type(t.typbasetype, t.typtypmod) as \"%s\",\n"
                                "       CASE WHEN t.typnotnull AND t.typdefault IS NOT NULL THEN 'not null default '||t.typdefault\n"
      "            WHEN t.typnotnull AND t.typdefault IS NULL THEN 'not null'\n"
                                "            WHEN NOT t.typnotnull AND t.typdefault IS NOT NULL THEN 'default '||t.typdefault\n"
                                "            ELSE ''\n"
                                "       END as \"%s\",\n"
                                "       pg_catalog.array_to_string(ARRAY(\n"
                                "         SELECT pg_catalog.pg_get_constraintdef(r.oid, true) FROM pg_catalog.pg_constraint r WHERE t.oid = r.contypid\n"
                                "       ), ' ') as \"%s\"\n"
                                "FROM pg_catalog.pg_type t\n"
         "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = t.typnamespace\n"
                                "WHERE t.typtype = 'd'\n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Type"),
                                gettext_noop("Modifier"),
                                gettext_noop("Check"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "t.typname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_type_is_visible(t.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of domains");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

/*
 * \dc
 *
 * Describes conversions.
 */
bool
listConversions(const char *pattern, bool showSystem)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;
      static const bool translate_columns[] = {false, false, false, false, true};

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT n.nspname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "       c.conname AS \"%s\",\n"
         "       pg_catalog.pg_encoding_to_char(c.conforencoding) AS \"%s\",\n"
            "       pg_catalog.pg_encoding_to_char(c.contoencoding) AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "       CASE WHEN c.condefault THEN '%s'\n"
                                "       ELSE '%s' END AS \"%s\"\n"
                     "FROM pg_catalog.pg_conversion c, pg_catalog.pg_namespace n\n"
                                "WHERE n.oid = c.connamespace\n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Source"),
                                gettext_noop("Destination"),
                                gettext_noop("yes"), gettext_noop("no"),
                                gettext_noop("Default?"));

      if (!showSystem && !pattern)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "      AND n.nspname <> 'pg_catalog'\n"
                                      "      AND n.nspname <> 'information_schema'\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "c.conname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_conversion_is_visible(c.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of conversions");
      myopt.translate_header = true;
      myopt.translate_columns = translate_columns;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

/*
 * \dC
 *
 * Describes casts.
 */
bool
listCasts(const char *pattern)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;
      static const bool translate_columns[] = {false, false, false, true};

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      /*
       * We need a left join to pg_proc for binary casts; the others are just
       * paranoia.  Also note that we don't attempt to localize '(binary
       * coercible)', because there's too much risk of gettext translating a
       * function name that happens to match some string in the PO database.
       */
      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                     "SELECT pg_catalog.format_type(castsource, NULL) AS \"%s\",\n"
                     "       pg_catalog.format_type(casttarget, NULL) AS \"%s\",\n"
                          "       CASE WHEN castfunc = 0 THEN '(binary coercible)'\n"
                                "            ELSE p.proname\n"
                                "       END as \"%s\",\n"
                                "       CASE WHEN c.castcontext = 'e' THEN '%s'\n"
                                "            WHEN c.castcontext = 'a' THEN '%s'\n"
                                "            ELSE '%s'\n"
                                "       END as \"%s\"\n"
                         "FROM pg_catalog.pg_cast c LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_proc p\n"
                                "     ON c.castfunc = p.oid\n"
                                "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_type ts\n"
                                "     ON c.castsource = ts.oid\n"
                                "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace ns\n"
                                "     ON ns.oid = ts.typnamespace\n"
                                "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_type tt\n"
                                "     ON c.casttarget = tt.oid\n"
                                "     LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace nt\n"
                                "     ON nt.oid = tt.typnamespace\n"
                                "WHERE (true",
                                gettext_noop("Source type"),
                                gettext_noop("Target type"),
                                gettext_noop("Function"),
        gettext_noop("no"), gettext_noop("in assignment"), gettext_noop("yes"),
                                gettext_noop("Implicit?"));

      /*
       * Match name pattern against either internal or external name of either
       * castsource or casttarget
       */
      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "ns.nspname", "ts.typname",
                                      "pg_catalog.format_type(ts.oid, NULL)",
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_type_is_visible(ts.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ") OR (true");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "nt.nspname", "tt.typname",
                                      "pg_catalog.format_type(tt.oid, NULL)",
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_type_is_visible(tt.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ")\nORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of casts");
      myopt.translate_header = true;
      myopt.translate_columns = translate_columns;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

/*
 * \dn
 *
 * Describes schemas (namespaces)
 */
bool
listSchemas(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT n.nspname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  pg_catalog.pg_get_userbyid(n.nspowner) AS \"%s\"",
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Owner"));

      if (verbose)
      {
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ",\n  ");
            printACLColumn(&buf, "n.nspacl");
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
              ",\n  pg_catalog.obj_description(n.oid, 'pg_namespace') AS \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Description"));
      }

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_namespace n\n"
                                "WHERE    (n.nspname !~ '^pg_temp_' OR\n"
               "         n.nspname = (pg_catalog.current_schemas(true))[1])\n");          /* temp schema is first */

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      NULL, "n.nspname", NULL,
                                      NULL);

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of schemas");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/*
 * \dFp
 * list text search parsers
 */
bool
listTSParsers(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      if (pset.sversion < 80300)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("The server (version %d.%d) does not support full text search.\n"),
                        pset.sversion / 10000, (pset.sversion / 100) % 100);
            return true;
      }

      if (verbose)
            return listTSParsersVerbose(pattern);

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT \n"
                                "  n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  p.prsname as \"%s\",\n"
                  "  pg_catalog.obj_description(p.oid, 'pg_ts_parser') as \"%s\"\n"
                                "FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser p \n"
               "LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = p.prsnamespace\n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Description")
            );

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "p.prsname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser_is_visible(p.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of text search parsers");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

/*
 * full description of parsers
 */
static bool
listTSParsersVerbose(const char *pattern)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      int               i;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT p.oid, \n"
                                "  n.nspname, \n"
                                "  p.prsname \n"
                                "FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser p\n"
                  "LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = p.prsnamespace\n"
            );

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "p.prsname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser_is_visible(p.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      if (PQntuples(res) == 0)
      {
            if (!pset.quiet)
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Did not find any text search parser named \"%s\".\n"),
                              pattern);
            PQclear(res);
            return false;
      }

      for (i = 0; i < PQntuples(res); i++)
      {
            const char *oid;
            const char *nspname = NULL;
            const char *prsname;

            oid = PQgetvalue(res, i, 0);
            if (!PQgetisnull(res, i, 1))
                  nspname = PQgetvalue(res, i, 1);
            prsname = PQgetvalue(res, i, 2);

            if (!describeOneTSParser(oid, nspname, prsname))
            {
                  PQclear(res);
                  return false;
            }

            if (cancel_pressed)
            {
                  PQclear(res);
                  return false;
            }
      }

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

static bool
describeOneTSParser(const char *oid, const char *nspname, const char *prsname)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      char        title[1024];
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;
      static const bool translate_columns[] = {true, false, false};

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT '%s' AS \"%s\", \n"
                                "   p.prsstart::pg_catalog.regproc AS \"%s\", \n"
              "   pg_catalog.obj_description(p.prsstart, 'pg_proc') as \"%s\" \n"
                                " FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser p \n"
                                " WHERE p.oid = '%s' \n"
                                "UNION ALL \n"
                                "SELECT '%s', \n"
                                "   p.prstoken::pg_catalog.regproc, \n"
                              "   pg_catalog.obj_description(p.prstoken, 'pg_proc') \n"
                                " FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser p \n"
                                " WHERE p.oid = '%s' \n"
                                "UNION ALL \n"
                                "SELECT '%s', \n"
                                "   p.prsend::pg_catalog.regproc, \n"
                                "   pg_catalog.obj_description(p.prsend, 'pg_proc') \n"
                                " FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser p \n"
                                " WHERE p.oid = '%s' \n"
                                "UNION ALL \n"
                                "SELECT '%s', \n"
                                "   p.prsheadline::pg_catalog.regproc, \n"
                         "   pg_catalog.obj_description(p.prsheadline, 'pg_proc') \n"
                                " FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser p \n"
                                " WHERE p.oid = '%s' \n"
                                "UNION ALL \n"
                                "SELECT '%s', \n"
                                "   p.prslextype::pg_catalog.regproc, \n"
                          "   pg_catalog.obj_description(p.prslextype, 'pg_proc') \n"
                                " FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser p \n"
                                " WHERE p.oid = '%s' \n",
                                gettext_noop("Start parse"),
                                gettext_noop("Method"),
                                gettext_noop("Function"),
                                gettext_noop("Description"),
                                oid,
                                gettext_noop("Get next token"),
                                oid,
                                gettext_noop("End parse"),
                                oid,
                                gettext_noop("Get headline"),
                                oid,
                                gettext_noop("Get token types"),
                                oid);

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      if (nspname)
            sprintf(title, _("Text search parser \"%s.%s\""), nspname, prsname);
      else
            sprintf(title, _("Text search parser \"%s\""), prsname);
      myopt.title = title;
      myopt.footers = NULL;
      myopt.default_footer = false;
      myopt.translate_header = true;
      myopt.translate_columns = translate_columns;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT t.alias as \"%s\", \n"
                                "  t.description as \"%s\" \n"
                    "FROM pg_catalog.ts_token_type( '%s'::pg_catalog.oid ) as t \n"
                                "ORDER BY 1;",
                                gettext_noop("Token name"),
                                gettext_noop("Description"),
                                oid);

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      if (nspname)
            sprintf(title, _("Token types for parser \"%s.%s\""), nspname, prsname);
      else
            sprintf(title, _("Token types for parser \"%s\""), prsname);
      myopt.title = title;
      myopt.footers = NULL;
      myopt.default_footer = true;
      myopt.translate_header = true;
      myopt.translate_columns = NULL;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/*
 * \dFd
 * list text search dictionaries
 */
bool
listTSDictionaries(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      if (pset.sversion < 80300)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("The server (version %d.%d) does not support full text search.\n"),
                        pset.sversion / 10000, (pset.sversion / 100) % 100);
            return true;
      }

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT \n"
                                "  n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "  d.dictname as \"%s\",\n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"));

      if (verbose)
      {
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "  ( SELECT COALESCE(nt.nspname, '(null)')::pg_catalog.text || '.' || t.tmplname FROM \n"
                                      "    pg_catalog.pg_ts_template t \n"
                                      "                LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace nt ON nt.oid = t.tmplnamespace \n"
                                      "                WHERE d.dicttemplate = t.oid ) AS  \"%s\", \n"
                                      "  d.dictinitoption as \"%s\", \n",
                                      gettext_noop("Template"),
                                      gettext_noop("Init options"));
      }

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                   "  pg_catalog.obj_description(d.oid, 'pg_ts_dict') as \"%s\"\n",
                                gettext_noop("Description"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_dict d\n"
             "LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = d.dictnamespace\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "d.dictname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_ts_dict_is_visible(d.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of text search dictionaries");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/*
 * \dFt
 * list text search templates
 */
bool
listTSTemplates(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      if (pset.sversion < 80300)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("The server (version %d.%d) does not support full text search.\n"),
                        pset.sversion / 10000, (pset.sversion / 100) % 100);
            return true;
      }

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      if (verbose)
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "SELECT \n"
                                      "  n.nspname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  t.tmplname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  t.tmplinit::pg_catalog.regproc AS \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  t.tmpllexize::pg_catalog.regproc AS \"%s\",\n"
             "  pg_catalog.obj_description(t.oid, 'pg_ts_template') AS \"%s\"\n",
                                      gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                      gettext_noop("Name"),
                                      gettext_noop("Init"),
                                      gettext_noop("Lexize"),
                                      gettext_noop("Description"));
      else
            printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      "SELECT \n"
                                      "  n.nspname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  t.tmplname AS \"%s\",\n"
             "  pg_catalog.obj_description(t.oid, 'pg_ts_template') AS \"%s\"\n",
                                      gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                      gettext_noop("Name"),
                                      gettext_noop("Description"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_template t\n"
             "LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = t.tmplnamespace\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "t.tmplname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_ts_template_is_visible(t.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of text search templates");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/*
 * \dF
 * list text search configurations
 */
bool
listTSConfigs(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      if (pset.sversion < 80300)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("The server (version %d.%d) does not support full text search.\n"),
                        pset.sversion / 10000, (pset.sversion / 100) % 100);
            return true;
      }

      if (verbose)
            return listTSConfigsVerbose(pattern);

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT \n"
                                "   n.nspname as \"%s\",\n"
                                "   c.cfgname as \"%s\",\n"
               "   pg_catalog.obj_description(c.oid, 'pg_ts_config') as \"%s\"\n"
                                "FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_config c\n"
              "LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.cfgnamespace \n",
                                gettext_noop("Schema"),
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Description")
            );

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "c.cfgname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_ts_config_is_visible(c.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of text search configurations");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

static bool
listTSConfigsVerbose(const char *pattern)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      int               i;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT c.oid, c.cfgname,\n"
                                "   n.nspname, \n"
                                "   p.prsname, \n"
                                "   np.nspname as pnspname \n"
                                "FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_config c \n"
         "   LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace n ON n.oid = c.cfgnamespace, \n"
                                " pg_catalog.pg_ts_parser p \n"
        "   LEFT JOIN pg_catalog.pg_namespace np ON np.oid = p.prsnamespace \n"
                                "WHERE  p.oid = c.cfgparser\n"
            );

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, true, false,
                                      "n.nspname", "c.cfgname", NULL,
                                      "pg_catalog.pg_ts_config_is_visible(c.oid)");

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 3, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      if (PQntuples(res) == 0)
      {
            if (!pset.quiet)
                  fprintf(stderr, _("Did not find any text search configuration named \"%s\".\n"),
                              pattern);
            PQclear(res);
            return false;
      }

      for (i = 0; i < PQntuples(res); i++)
      {
            const char *oid;
            const char *cfgname;
            const char *nspname = NULL;
            const char *prsname;
            const char *pnspname = NULL;

            oid = PQgetvalue(res, i, 0);
            cfgname = PQgetvalue(res, i, 1);
            if (!PQgetisnull(res, i, 2))
                  nspname = PQgetvalue(res, i, 2);
            prsname = PQgetvalue(res, i, 3);
            if (!PQgetisnull(res, i, 4))
                  pnspname = PQgetvalue(res, i, 4);

            if (!describeOneTSConfig(oid, nspname, cfgname, pnspname, prsname))
            {
                  PQclear(res);
                  return false;
            }

            if (cancel_pressed)
            {
                  PQclear(res);
                  return false;
            }
      }

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

static bool
describeOneTSConfig(const char *oid, const char *nspname, const char *cfgname,
                              const char *pnspname, const char *prsname)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf,
                        title;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);

      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT \n"
                                "  ( SELECT t.alias FROM \n"
                                "    pg_catalog.ts_token_type(c.cfgparser) AS t \n"
                                "    WHERE t.tokid = m.maptokentype ) AS \"%s\", \n"
                                "  pg_catalog.btrim( \n"
                          "    ARRAY( SELECT mm.mapdict::pg_catalog.regdictionary \n"
                                "           FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_config_map AS mm \n"
                                "           WHERE mm.mapcfg = m.mapcfg AND mm.maptokentype = m.maptokentype \n"
                                "           ORDER BY mapcfg, maptokentype, mapseqno \n"
                                "    ) :: pg_catalog.text , \n"
                                "  '{}') AS \"%s\" \n"
       "FROM pg_catalog.pg_ts_config AS c, pg_catalog.pg_ts_config_map AS m \n"
                                "WHERE c.oid = '%s' AND m.mapcfg = c.oid \n"
                                "GROUP BY m.mapcfg, m.maptokentype, c.cfgparser \n"
                                "ORDER BY 1",
                                gettext_noop("Token"),
                                gettext_noop("Dictionaries"),
                                oid);

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      initPQExpBuffer(&title);

      if (nspname)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&title, _("Text search configuration \"%s.%s\""),
                                      nspname, cfgname);
      else
            appendPQExpBuffer(&title, _("Text search configuration \"%s\""),
                                      cfgname);

      if (pnspname)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&title, _("\nParser: \"%s.%s\""),
                                      pnspname, prsname);
      else
            appendPQExpBuffer(&title, _("\nParser: \"%s\""),
                                      prsname);

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = title.data;
      myopt.footers = NULL;
      myopt.default_footer = false;
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      termPQExpBuffer(&title);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}


/*
 * \dew
 *
 * Describes foreign-data wrappers
 */
bool
listForeignDataWrappers(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      if (pset.sversion < 80400)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("The server (version %d.%d) does not support foreign-data wrappers.\n"),
                        pset.sversion / 10000, (pset.sversion / 100) % 100);
            return true;
      }

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT fdwname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  pg_catalog.pg_get_userbyid(fdwowner) AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  fdwvalidator::pg_catalog.regproc AS \"%s\"",
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Owner"),
                                gettext_noop("Validator"));

      if (verbose)
      {
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ",\n  ");
            printACLColumn(&buf, "fdwacl");
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n  fdwoptions AS \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Options"));
      }

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_foreign_data_wrapper\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                      NULL, "fdwname", NULL, NULL);

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of foreign-data wrappers");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

/*
 * \des
 *
 * Describes foreign servers.
 */
bool
listForeignServers(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      if (pset.sversion < 80400)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("The server (version %d.%d) does not support foreign servers.\n"),
                        pset.sversion / 10000, (pset.sversion / 100) % 100);
            return true;
      }

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT s.srvname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  pg_catalog.pg_get_userbyid(s.srvowner) AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  f.fdwname AS \"%s\"",
                                gettext_noop("Name"),
                                gettext_noop("Owner"),
                                gettext_noop("Foreign-data wrapper"));

      if (verbose)
      {
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, ",\n  ");
            printACLColumn(&buf, "s.srvacl");
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n"
                                      "  s.srvtype AS \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  s.srvversion AS \"%s\",\n"
                                      "  s.srvoptions AS \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Type"),
                                      gettext_noop("Version"),
                                      gettext_noop("Options"));
      }

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_foreign_server s\n"
         "     JOIN pg_catalog.pg_foreign_data_wrapper f ON f.oid=s.srvfdw\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                      NULL, "s.srvname", NULL, NULL);

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of foreign servers");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

/*
 * \deu
 *
 * Describes user mappings.
 */
bool
listUserMappings(const char *pattern, bool verbose)
{
      PQExpBufferData buf;
      PGresult   *res;
      printQueryOpt myopt = pset.popt;

      if (pset.sversion < 80400)
      {
            fprintf(stderr, _("The server (version %d.%d) does not support user mappings.\n"),
                        pset.sversion / 10000, (pset.sversion / 100) % 100);
            return true;
      }

      initPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      printfPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                "SELECT um.srvname AS \"%s\",\n"
                                "  um.usename AS \"%s\"",
                                gettext_noop("Server"),
                                gettext_noop("User name"));

      if (verbose)
            appendPQExpBuffer(&buf,
                                      ",\n  um.umoptions AS \"%s\"",
                                      gettext_noop("Options"));

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "\nFROM pg_catalog.pg_user_mappings um\n");

      processSQLNamePattern(pset.db, &buf, pattern, false, false,
                                      NULL, "um.srvname", "um.usename", NULL);

      appendPQExpBuffer(&buf, "ORDER BY 1, 2;");

      res = PSQLexec(buf.data, false);
      termPQExpBuffer(&buf);
      if (!res)
            return false;

      myopt.nullPrint = NULL;
      myopt.title = _("List of user mappings");
      myopt.translate_header = true;

      printQuery(res, &myopt, pset.queryFout, pset.logfile);

      PQclear(res);
      return true;
}

/*
 * printACLColumn
 *
 * Helper function for consistently formatting ACL (privilege) columns.
 * The proper targetlist entry is appended to buf.    Note lack of any
 * whitespace or comma decoration.
 */
static void
printACLColumn(PQExpBuffer buf, const char *colname)
{
      if (pset.sversion >= 80100)
            appendPQExpBuffer(buf,
                                      "pg_catalog.array_to_string(%s, E'\\n') AS \"%s\"",
                                      colname, gettext_noop("Access privileges"));
      else
            appendPQExpBuffer(buf,
                                      "pg_catalog.array_to_string(%s, '\\n') AS \"%s\"",
                                      colname, gettext_noop("Access privileges"));
}

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